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Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases can be concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce Coming In From The Cold - Bob Marley & The Wailers - Uprising called " getting high " in slangin a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
They are inhaled at room temperature through volatilization in the case of gasoline or acetone or from a pressurized container e.
For example, amyl nitrite poppersnitrous oxide and toluene — a solvent widely used in contact cementpermanent markers, and certain types of glue — are considered inhalants, but smoking tobaccocannabisand crack are not, even though these drugs are inhaled as smoke. While a small number of inhalants are prescribed by medical professionals and used for medical purposesas in the case of inhaled anesthetics and nitrous oxide an anxiolytic and pain relief agent prescribed by dentiststhis article focuses on inhalant use of household and industrial propellants, glues, fuels and other products in a manner not intended by the manufacturer, to produce intoxication or other psychoactive effects.
These products are used as recreational drugs for their intoxicating effect. According to a report by the National Institute on Drug Abusethe most serious inhalant abuse occurs among homeless children and teens who " The practices are known colloquially as "sniffing", "huffing" or "bagging".
The effects of inhalants range from an alcohol-like intoxication and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinationsdepending on the substance and the dose.
Some inhalant users are injured due to the harmful effects of the solvents or gases or due to other chemicals used in the products that they are inhaling. As with any recreational drug, users can be injured due to dangerous behavior while they are intoxicated, such as driving under the influence. In some cases, users have died from hypoxia lack of oxygenpneumoniacardiac failure or arrest or aspiration of vomit.
Brain damage is typically seen with chronic long-term use of solvents as opposed to short-term exposure. Even though many inhalants are legal, there have been legal actions taken in some jurisdictions to limit access by minors. While solvent glue is normally a legal product, a Scottish court has ruled that supplying glue to children is illegal if the store knows the children intend to abuse the glue.
In the US, thirty-eight of 50 states have enacted laws making various inhalants unavailable to those under the age of 18, or making inhalant use illegal. Inhalants can be classified by the intended function. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled.
A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly. Another way to categorize inhalants is by their product category. There are three main product categories: solvents; gases; and medical drugs which are used illicitly.
A wide range of volatile solvents intended for household or industrial use are inhaled as recreational drugs. This includes petroleum products gasoline and kerosenetoluene used in paint thinner, permanent markers, contact cement and model glueand acetone used in nail polish remover. These solvents vaporize at room temperature.
Ethanol the alcohol which is normally drunk is sometimes inhaled, but this cannot be done at room temperature. The ethanol must be converted from liquid into gaseous state vapor or aerosol mist in some cases using a nebulizera machine that agitates the liquid into an aerosol. The sale of nebulizers for inhaling ethanol was banned in some US states due to safety concerns. A number of gases intended for household or industrial use are inhaled as recreational drugs. This includes chlorofluorocarbons used in aerosols and propellants e.
A gas used as a propellant in whipped cream aerosol containers, nitrous oxide, is used as a recreational drug. Pressurized canisters of propane and butane gas, both of which are intended for use as fuels, are used as inhalants.
Several medical anesthetics are used as recreational drugs, including diethyl ether a drug that is no longer used medically, due to its high flammability and the development of safer alternatives and nitrous oxidewhich is widely used in the s by dentists as an anti-anxiety drug during dental procedures.
Diethyl ether has a long Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue of use Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue a recreational drug. The effects of ether intoxication are similar to those of alcohol intoxication, but more potent.
Also, due to NMDA antagonism, the user may experience all the psychedelic effects present in classical dissociatives such as ketamine in forms of thought loops and feeling of mind being disconnected from one's body.
Nitrous oxide is a dental anesthetic which is used as a recreational drug, either by users who have access to medical-grade gas canisters e. Nitrous oxide inhalation can cause pain reliefdepersonalisation Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Gluederealisationdizzinesseuphoriaand some sound distortion.
It is also possible to classify inhalants by the effect they have on the body. Some solvents act as depressantscausing users to feel relaxed or drowsy.
Many inhalants act primarily as asphyxiant gaseswith their primary effect due to oxygen deprivation. Other agents may have more direct effects at receptors, as inhalants exhibit a variety of mechanisms of action. The mechanisms of action of many non-medical inhalants have not been well elucidated. Anesthetic gases used for surgery, such as nitrous oxide or enfluraneare believed to induce anesthesia primarily by acting as NMDA receptor antagonistsopen channel blockers that bind to the inside of the calcium channels on the outer surface of the neuronand provide high levels of NMDA receptor blockade for a short period of time.
This makes inhaled anesthetic gases different from other NMDA antagonists, such as ketaminewhich bind to a regulatory site on the NMDA-sensitive calcium transporter complex and provide slightly lower levels of NMDA blockade, but for a longer and much more predictable duration. This makes a deeper level of anesthesia achievable more easily using anesthetic gases but can also make them more dangerous than other drugs used for this purpose.
Inhalants can also be classified by chemical structure. Inhalant users inhale vapors or aerosol propellant gases using plastic bags held over the mouth or by breathing from an open container of solvents, such as gasoline or paint thinner. Nitrous oxide gases from whipped cream aerosol cans, aerosol hairspray or non-stick frying spray are sprayed into plastic bags. Some nitrous oxide users spray Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue gas into balloons.
When inhaling non-stick cooking spray or other aerosol products, some users may Roztopy - Jerzy Ficowski - Dom W Którym Śmieszy (Wiersze Dla Dzieci) the aerosolized particles out with a rag. Some gases, such as propane and butane gases, are inhaled directly from the canister. Once these solvents or gases are inhaled, the extensive capillary surface of the lungs rapidly absorb the solvent or gas, and blood levels peak rapidly.
The intoxication effects occur so quickly that the effects of inhalation can resemble the intensity of effects produced by intravenous injection of other psychoactive drugs.
Ethanol is also inhaled, either by vaporizing it by pouring it over dry ice in a narrow container and inhaling with a straw or by pouring alcohol in a corked bottle with a pipe, and then using a bicycle pump to make a spray. Alcohol can be vaporized using a simple container and open-flame heater. AWOL was used by nightclubs, at gatherings and parties, and it garnered attraction as a noveltyas people 'enjoyed passing it around in a group'.
Although the AWOL machine is marketed as having no downsides, such as the lack of calories or hangovers, Amanda Shaffer of Slate describes these claims as "dubious at best". The effects of solvent intoxication can vary widely depending on the dose and what Real Mans Man William Regal - James A.
Johnston - World Wrestling Entertainment Presents: Antholo of solvent or gas is inhaled. A person who has inhaled a small amount of rubber cement or paint thinner vapor may be impaired in a manner resembling alcohol inebriation.
A person who has inhaled a larger quantity of solvents or gases, or a stronger chemical, may experience stronger effects such as distortion in perceptions of time and space, hallucinationsand emotional disturbances. The effects of inhalant use are also modified by the combined use of inhalants and alcohol or other drugs.
In the short term, many users experience headache, nausea and vomiting, slurred speech, loss of motor coordinationand wheezing. A characteristic "glue sniffer's rash" around the nose and mouth is sometimes seen after prolonged use.
An odor of paint or solvents on clothes, skin, and breath is sometimes a sign of inhalant abuse, and paint or solvent residues can sometimes emerge in sweat. According to NIH, even a single Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue of inhalant abuse "can disrupt heart rhythms and lower oxygen levels", which can lead to death. Statistics on deaths caused by inhalant abuse are difficult to determine. It may be severely under-reported, because death is often attributed to a discrete event such as a stroke or a heart attack, even if the event happened because of inhalant abuse.
Regardless of which inhalant is used, inhaling vapours or gases can lead to injury or death. One major risk is hypoxia lack of oxygenwhich can occur due to inhaling fumes from a plastic bag, or from using proper inhalation mask equipment e. Another danger is freezing the throat.
When a gas that was stored under high Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue is released, it cools abruptly and can cause frostbite if it is inhaled Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue from the container. This can occur, for example, with inhaling nitrous oxide. When nitrous oxide is used as an automotive power adderits cooling effect is used to make the fuel-air charge denser.
In a person, this effect is potentially lethal. Many inhalants are volatile organic chemicals and can catch fire or explode, especially when combined with smoking. As with many other drugs, users may also injure Sad Mistake - Pablo Gad - Hard Times due to loss of coordination or impaired judgment, especially if they attempt to drive.
Solvents have many potential risks in common, including pneumonia, cardiac failure or arrest,  and aspiration of vomit. The inhaling of some solvents can cause hearing loss, limb spasms, and damage to the central nervous system and brain. Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue from inhalants is generally caused by a very high concentration of fumes.
Deliberately inhaling solvents from an attached paper or plastic bag or in a closed area greatly increases the chances of suffocation.
Brain damage is typically seen with chronic long-term use as opposed to short-term exposure. Female inhalant users who are pregnant may have adverse effects on the Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glueand the baby may be smaller when it is born and may need additional health care similar to those seen with alcohol — fetal alcohol syndrome.
There is some evidence of birth defects and disabilities in babies born to women who sniffed solvents such as gasoline. In the short term, death from solvent abuse occurs most commonly from aspiration of vomit while unconscious or from a combination of respiratory depression and hypoxiathe second cause being especially a risk String Quartet No.
15 In E Flat Minor, Op. 144 - Shostakovich* - Fitzwilliam String Quartet - The St heavier-than-air vapors such as butane or gasoline vapor. Deaths typically occur from complications related to excessive sedation and vomiting.
Actual overdose from the drug does occur, however, and inhaled solvent abuse is statistically more I Love The Lord - Lamb - Lamb Live to result in life-threatening respiratory depression than intravenous use of opiates such as heroin. Most deaths from solvent abuse could be prevented if individuals were resuscitated quickly when they stopped breathing and their airway cleared if they vomited.
However, Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue inhalant abuse takes place when people inhale solvents by themselves or in groups of people who are intoxicated. Certain solvents are more hazardous than others, such as gasoline. In contrast, a few inhalants like amyl nitrate and diethyl ether have medical Slide Polka - Rail Yard Ghosts - Blackgrass and are not toxic in the same sense as solvents, though they can still be dangerous when used recreationally.
Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue oxide is thought to be particularly non-toxic, though Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue long-term use can lead to a variety of serious health problems linked to destruction of vitamin B12 and folic acid.
The hypoxic effect of inhalants can cause damage to many organ systems particularly the brainwhich has a very low tolerance for oxygen deprivationbut there can also be additional toxicity resulting from Dallas - The Visitors (25) - Sniffing Glue the physical properties of the compound itself or additional ingredients present in a product. Organochlorine solvents are particularly hazardous; many of these are now restricted in developed countries due to their environmental impact.
Toxicity may also result from the pharmacological properties of the drug; excess NMDA antagonism can completely block calcium influx Lucifer - Lawrence - Films & Windows neurons and provoke cell death through apoptosis[ citation needed ] although this is more likely to be a long-term result of chronic solvent abuse than a consequence of short-term use.
Inhaling butane gas can cause drowsiness, unconsciousnessasphyxiaand cardiac arrhythmia. Some inhalants can also indirectly cause sudden death by cardiac arrestin a syndrome known as "sudden sniffing death". Furthermore, the inhalation of any gas that is capable of displacing oxygen in the lungs especially gases heavier than oxygen carries the risk of hypoxia as a result of the very mechanism by which breathing is triggered. Since reflexive breathing is prompted by elevated carbon dioxide levels rather than diminished blood oxygen levelsbreathing a concentrated, relatively inert gas such as computer-duster tetrafluoroethane or nitrous oxide that removes carbon dioxide from the blood without replacing it with oxygen will produce no outward signs of suffocation even when the brain is experiencing hypoxia.
Once full symptoms of hypoxia appear, it may be too late to breathe without assistance, especially if the gas is heavy enough to lodge in the lungs for extended periods. Even completely inert gases, such as argoncan have this effect if oxygen is largely excluded.
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