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Church music in Scotland includes all musical composition and performance of music in the context of Christian worship in Scotland, from the beginnings of Christianisation in the fifth century, to the present day.
The sources for Scottish Medieval music P.I.G.S. - Various - Ens Fa Pudor La Boca extremely limited due to factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive Branford Marsalis Quartet - Romare Bearden Revealed of the Scottish Reformationthe climate and the relatively late arrival of music printing.
In the early Middle Agesecclesiastical music was dominated by monophonic plainchantwhich led to the development of a distinct form of liturgical Celtic chant. It was superseded from the eleventh century by more complex Gregorian chant. In the High Middle Agesthe need for large numbers of singing priests to fulfill the obligations of church services led to the foundation of a system of song schoolsto train boys as choristers and priests.
From the thirteenth century, Scottish church music was increasingly influenced by continental developments. Monophony was replaced from the fourteenth century by the Ars Nova consisting of complex polyphony. Survivals of works from the first half of the sixteenth century indicate the quality and scope of music that was undertaken at the end of the Medieval period.
The Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room Scottish composer of the first half of the sixteenth century was Robert Carverwho produced complex polyphonic music. The Reformation had a severe impact on church music. The song schools of the abbeys, cathedrals and collegiate churches were closed down, choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts destroyed and organs removed from churches.
The Lutheranism that influenced the early Scottish Reformation attempted to accommodate Catholic musical traditions into worship. Later the Calvinism that came to dominate was much more hostile to Catholic musical tradition and popular music, placing an emphasis on what was biblical, which meant the Psalms and most church compositions were confined to homophonic settings.
James VI attempted to revive the song schools, however, the triumph of the Presbyterians in the National Covenant of led to and end of polyphony. In the eighteenth century Evangelicals tended to believe only the Psalms of the Psalter should be used in the services in the church, while the Moderates attempted to expand psalmody in the Church of Scotland to include hymns the singing of other scriptural paraphrases. Lining out began to be abandoned in favour of singing stanza by stanza.
In the second half of the eighteenth century these innovations became linked to a choir movement that included the setting up of schools to teach new tunes and singing in four parts.
More tune books appeared and the repertory further expanded. The nineteenth century saw the reintroduction of accompanied music into the Church of Scotland, influenced by the Oxford Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room. Organs began to be added to churches from the mid-nineteenth century, but they remained controversial and were never placed in some churches. Hymns were also adopted by the main denominations. The American Evangelists Ira D.
Sankey and Dwight L. Moody helped popularise accompanied church music in Scotland. In the Scottish Episcopal Churchthe Oxford Movement and links with the Anglican Church led to the introduction of more traditional services and by surpliced choirs and musical services were the norm.
In Episcopalian cathedrals and churches that maintain a choral tradition, Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room repertoire of Anglican church music continues to play an important part of worship.
In the twentieth century ecumenical movements including the Iona Community and the Dunblane Consultations on church music, were highly influential on church music throughout Britain and the United States and there was a return to the composition of choral music. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited. These limitations are the result of factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive practices of the Scottish Reformationthe climate  and the relatively late arrival of music printing.
There are no major musical manuscripts for Scotland from before the twelfth century. Columba in this manuscript and the similar service in the Sprouston Breviarydedicated to St. Kentigernmay preserve some of this earlier tradition of plain Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room . Other sources include occasional written references in accounts and in literature and visual representations of musicians and instruments.
In the early Middle Ages, ecclesiastical music was dominated by monophonic plainchant. The Sarum rite continued to be the basis of Scottish liturgical music in Scotland until the Reformation and where choirs were available, which was probably limited to the great cathedrals, collegiate churches and the wealthier parish churches it would have been used in the main ingredient of divine offices of vesperscomplinematinslaudsmass and the canonical hours.
In the High Middle Ages, the need for large numbers of singing priests to fulfill the obligations of church services led to the foundation of a system of song schoolsto train boys as choristers and priests, often attached to Cathedrals, wealthy monasteries and collegiate churches.
Over collegiate churches of secular priests were founded in Scotland between and the Reformation. Monophony was replaced from the fourteenth century by the Ars Novaa movement that developed Você - Vicente Júnior - Vem Me Tirar Da Solidão France and then Italy, replacing the restrictive styles of Gregorian plainchant with complex polyphony.
Andrews and St. Giles, Edinburghand post-Reformation works from composers that were trained in this era from the abbeys of Dunfermline and Holyroodand from the priory at St. Andrews, indicate the quality and scope of music that was undertaken at the end of the Medieval period. The outstanding Scottish composer of the first half of the sixteenth century was Robert Carver c. His complex polyphonic music could only have been performed by a large and highly trained choir such as the one employed in the Scottish Chapel Royal.
James V was also a patron to figures including David Peebles c. These were probably only two of many accomplished composers from this era, whose work has largely only survived in fragments. The most important product of this tradition in Scotland was The Gude and Godlie Ballatiswhich were spiritual satires on popular ballads composed by the brothers JamesJohn and Robert Wedderburn. Never adopted by the kirk, they nevertheless remained popular and were reprinted from the s to the s.
Later the Calvinism that came to dominate the Scottish Reformation was much more hostile to Catholic musical tradition and popular music, placing an emphasis on what was biblical, which meant the Psalms. The Scottish Psalter of was commissioned by the Assembly of the Church. The intention was to produce individual tunes for each psalm, but of psalms had proper Ill Make It All Up To You - Golden Earring - N.E.W.S. and in the seventeenth century, common tunes, which could be used for psalms with the same metre, became more frequent.
Because whole congregations would now sing these psalms, unlike the trained choirs who had sung the many parts of polyphonic hymns,  there was a need for simplicity and most church compositions were confined to homophonic settings. During his personal reign James VI attempted to revive the song schools, with an act of parliament passed indemanding that councils of the largest burghs set up "ane sang scuill with ane maister sufficient and able for insturctioun of the yowth in the said science of musik".
Five new schools were opened within four years of the act and by there were at least twenty-five. Most of those without song schools made provision within their grammar schools. It would go through five editions by By the late seventeenth century these two works had become the basic corpus of the tunes sung in the kirk.
In the eighteenth century there were growing divisions in the kirk between the Evangelicals and the Moderate Party. In contrast the Moderates believed that Psalmody was in need of reform and expansion. From the late seventeenth century the common practice was lining outby which the precentor sang or read out each line Come Home (Sasha Matterhorn Intro Remix) - Various - Global Underground Twenty it was then repeated by the congregation.
From the second quarter of the eighteenth century it was argued that this should be abandoned in favour of the practice of singing stanza by stanza. This necessitated the use of practice verses and the pioneering work was Thomas Bruce's The Common Tunes, or, Scotland's Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room Musick Made Planewhich contained seven practice verses.
The 30 tunes in this book marked the beginning of a renewal movement in Scottish Psalmody. New practices were introduced and the repertory was expanded, including both neglected sixteenth-century Encontro Marcado - Joyce - Encontro Marcado and new ones.
More congregations abandoned lining out. In the period —45 a committee of the General Assembly worked on a series of paraphrases, borrowing from Watts, Philip Doddridge —51 and other Scottish and English writers, which were published as Translations and Paraphrases, in verse, of several passages of Sacred Scripture These were never formally adopted, as the Moderates, then dominant in the church, thought they were too Entropy - GTB - Entropy/Cotex. A corrected version was licensed for private use in and some individual congregations petitioned successful for their use in public worship and they were revised again and published After the Glorious Revolution episcopalianism retrained supporters, but they were divided between the " non-jurors ", not subscribing to the right of William III and Mary IIand later the Hanoveriansto be monarchs,  and Qualified Chapelswhere congregations, led by priests ordained by bishops of the Church of England or the Church of Irelandwere willing to pray Hes The Lord Of Glory - Mid Scotland Choir* - Plenty Of Room the Hanoverians.
They could worship openly and installed organs and hired musicians, following practice in English parish churches, singing in the liturgy as well as metrical psalms, while the non-jurors had to worship covertly and less elaborately. The two branches united in the s after the death of the last Stuart heir in the main line and the repeal of the penal laws in The non-juring branch soon absorbed the musical and liturgical traditions of the qualified churches.
Catholicism had been reduced to the fringes of the country, particularly the Gaelic-speaking areas of the Highlands and Islands. Numbers probably reduced in the seventeenth century and organisation had deteriorated. It typically involved an unsung Low Mass in Latin. Any form of musical accompaniment was prohibited by George Haywho was vicar apostolic of the Lowland District in the period to The nineteenth century saw the reintroduction of accompanied music into the Church of Scotland.
This was strongly influenced by the English Oxford Movementwhich encouraged a return to Medieval forms of architecture and worship. The first organ to be installed by a Church of Scotland church after the Reformation was at St.
Andrews, Glasgow inbut it was James Brown - James Brown Is Back! in the church building and was used only for weekly rehearsals. Two years later the city council was petitioned to allow it to be moved into the church, but they deferred to the local presbytery, who decided, after much deliberation, that they were illegal and prohibited their use within their jurisdiction.
In the first organ was controversially installed in an Edinburgh church. However, they remained controversial, with considerable opposition among conservative elements within the church  and organs were never placed in some churches. Similarly, in the Episcopalian Church the influence of the Oxford Movement and links with the Anglican Church led to the introduction of more traditional services and by surpliced choirs and musical services were Your Cheatin Heart - Faron Young - Hank Williams Was My Hero norm.
By there were organs in churches in seven towns. Hymns were first introduced in the United Presbyterian Church in the s. They became common in the Church of Scotland and Free Church in the s. The Church of Scotland adopted a hymnal with songs in and the Free Church followed suit in Sankey —and Dwight L.
Moody —99 to Edinburgh and Glasgow in Rhythm Design - The Temple / Black Notice helped popularise accompanied church music in Scotland. The Moody-Sankey hymnbook remained a best seller into the twentieth century. In the early twentieth century the Catholic Church in Scotland formalised the use of hymns, with the publication of The Book of Tunes and Hymnsthe Scottish equivalent of the Westminster Hymnal.
Leading musical figure John Bell b. They resulted in the British "Hymn Explosion" of the s, which produced multiple collections of new hymns. Over 30 have been created by James MacMillan b. Anne's Masswhich calls for congregational participation and his Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis for orchestra and choir. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
See also: Music in Medieval Scotland. See also: Scotland in the Early Middle Ages. See also: Scotland in the High Middle Ages.