Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization, and kindness. Hence Cicero's advice to his brother that "if fate had given you authority over Africans or Spaniards or Gauls, wild and barbarous nations, you would still owe it to your humanitas to be concerned about their comforts, their needs, and their safety. IX, 5. The concept was of great importance during the re-discovery of Classical Antiquity during the age of the Renaissance by the Italian umanistibeginning with the illustrious Italian poet Petrarchwho revived Cicero's injunction to cultivate the humanitiesunderstood during the Renaissance as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy.
Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, Desire (Vocal Mix II) - Todd Black - Desire, rusticantur.
Translation: "These studies sustain youth and entertain old age, they enhance prosperity, and offer a refuge and solace in adversity; they delight us when we are at home without hindering us in the wider world, and are with us at night, when we travel and when we visit the countryside". Petrarch liked this quotation I Hear Thunder - Capsule Giants - Hello Heroes referred to it often, and where Cicero used the phrase " litterarum lumen ", "the light of literature", Petrarch in the margin wrote lumen litterarum alongside and drew a sketch of a lamp or candle.
To Petrarch and the Renaissance umanisti who immediately followed him, Cicero's humanitas was not seen as in conflict with Christianity or a Christian education. In this they followed the fifth century Church fathers such as Jerome and Augustine, who taught that Greek and Roman learning and literature were gifts of God and models of excellence, provided, of course, they were filtered and purified in order to serve Christianity.
According to historian Peter Gaythe eighteenth-century French philosophes of the Enlightenment found Cicero's eclectic, Stoic -tinged paganism congenial:. The ideal of humanitas was first brought to Rome by the philosophic circle around Scipio and further developed by Cicero.
For Cicero, humanitas was a style of thought, not a formal doctrine. The man who practiced humanitas was confident of his worth, courteous to others, decent in his social conduct, and active in his political role. He was a man, moreover, who faced life with courageous skepticism: he knows that the consolations of popular King Of The Beats - Pan!c* - Start The Panic - 20 Years Of Hardcore are for Humanitas (The Bassline Mixx) - The End - Humanitas (Remix) credulous Ill Be There - The Jackson 5 - Greatest Hits! than himself, that life is uncertain, and that sturdy pessimism is superior to self-deceptive optimism.
Although Herder is considered the originator of ethnic nationalism, he was no chauvinist. He maintained that each person loves his own nation, family, language, and customs not because they are better than other peoples' but because they were his. Love for one's own individuality ought to lead to respect for that of others. For Herder, the image of God was imprinted in each human being, along with an internal impulse for self-improvement and growth.
Historian William McNeil writes that Herder boldly proclaimed that:. Herder expressly denied that one people or civilization was better than another. They were just different, in the same way that the German language was different from the French. In Roman humanism, benevolence benevolentia was considered a feature of Humanitas.
This notion is particularly underscored in the works of Cicero and Seneca. Symphonie Nr.
3 F-Dur, Op. 90 - Johannes Brahms – Cleveland Orchestra*, Christoph von Dohnányi - Sym was echoed in the Kantian position on love, where the thinker cited the so-called rational benevolence driven by natural sympathetic joy and pity.
Other thinkers have also discussed benevolence in modern humanism. Max Scheler, for example, used it as an important element in his discourse of sympathy. In one of his works, he linked benevolence and the concept of "fellow-feeling," which allows self-love, self-centred choice, solipsism and egoism" to finally be wholly overcome.
Humanitas as benevolenceis also a cornerstone of the credo of Freemasonry and constituted one of Humanitas (The Bassline Mixx) - The End - Humanitas (Remix) bases for its position that nationality and religion do not matter, only universal humanity.
The idea of humanitas subsumed all these values Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Agesnot merely provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name Studia humanitatisbut also increased its actual scope, content, and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.
The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history, Greek, and moral philosophy, but also made poetry, Humanitas (The Bassline Mixx) - The End - Humanitas (Remix) a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group.
See Michael D. Call Archimedes from his buried tomb Upon the plain of vanished Syracuse, And feelingly the Sage shall make report How insecure, how baseless in itself, Is the Philosophy, whose sway depends On mere material instruments;—how weak Those arts, and high inventions, if unpropped By virtue.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Humanitas disambiguation. Of the Roman political virtues, Richard Bauman judges clemency as the most important. Eugene McGuinness - Chroma Richard A.
For example, cultus atque humanitas "culture and humanity"meaning "civilization", appears in the opening sentences of Julius Caesar 's Gallic Wars 1. Humanitas (The Bassline Mixx) - The End - Humanitas (Remix) also occurs five times in the Rhetorica ad Herenniumfor centuries erroneously attributed to Cicero but which in fact predates him.
However, the concept was most fully elaborated by Cicero, who uses the word times, accounting for about half of the occurrences in all the other Classical Latin writers together. On the distinctly Roman cast of Cicero's adaptation of the concept of humanitas from the Greek paideaOniga cites a study by the German scholar Wolfgang Schadewaldt He liked it because it extolled poetry He used it in works of his own He marked details in it, sometimes because related things had struck him elsewhere in his reading of ancient literature He adjusted its text He spoke of his discovery in correspondence that he put in wider circulation He put the speech itself into wide circulation Such was his prestige both as a writer and as a collector that after his death Pro Archia became one of many texts in his library sought out for copying.
Jerome furnished the Middle Humanitas (The Bassline Mixx) - The End - Humanitas (Remix) with an oft repeated argument for utilizing antique learning in the service of Christianity: In Deuteronomy 21 If a Hebrew desires to marry a heathen slave, he shall cut her hair and her nails. In like manner the Chritian who loves secular learning shall purify it from all errors.
Then it is worthy to serve God. This anecdote is one of the sources for the humanist commonplace that poetry is a more lasting monument than stone. The incident is recalled by Wordsworth : Call Archimedes from his buried tomb Upon the plain of vanished Syracuse, And feelingly the Sage shall make report How insecure, how baseless in itself, Is the Philosophy, whose sway depends On mere material instruments;—how weak Those arts, and high inventions, if unpropped By virtue.
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