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During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated.
In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period.
We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance.
Plague is a zoonotic infection circulating among small animals, usually black rats and their fleas; it is caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis. This disease is transmitted from animals to humans by the bite of infected fleas, direct contact, inhalation, and, rarely, ingestion of infective material. Untreated plague has a high case-fatality rate 12. Plague represents an exotic disease in North America; it usually affects prairie dogs Cynomus luduvicianus and has eliminated large colonies of these animals in the Antimatter - Various - Hard & Core Will Dominate The World (File) United States.
Although these animals are susceptible, it is believed that other rodents and their fleas are the reservoirs and spread the disease during epizoonotics and maintain the pathogen 4. Three forms of plague are known: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic. The bubonic form is most common and results from the bite of an infective flea.
The bacillus enters through the bite, travels through the lymphatic system to the lymph nodes, and results in painful inflammation. The septicemic form occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream. The pneumonic form results from inhalation of aerosolized infective droplets and can also be transmitted between humans 12. Bubonic plague, historically also known as Black Death, swept across Europe during the late medieval Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous in an epidemic that started in 5 — 9.
The disease got its name from the deep purple, almost black discoloration of infected persons caused by subcutaneous hemorrhages. Wars, poverty, hunger, and malnutrition made Europe of the 14th century Black Cancer - Zebras - Zebras ideal ground for plague epidemics.
The disease became endemic and haunted the continent throughout the 14th—18th centuries. Major outbreaks occurred in Italy inLondon inand Vienna in 5 — 9. It is not known where the pandemic started. It most likely originated in central Asia and was carried west by Mongols and traders along the Silk Road. It Little Deuce Coupe - The Beach Boys - Super Hits (8-Track Cartridge) imported to Europe through Crimea, from which it spread to Sicily.
The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated to be 75 million 5 — 9. Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous rat-borne plague has been controlled since the beginning of the 20th century by modern sanitation practices. Epidemics caused by rats transferred on ships to port cities are no longer a threat.
However, the disease still occurs in rural areas because Y. The continuing potential for reemergence of plague is evident by reports of outbreaks of the infection in Africa and India. The World Health Organization reports 1,—3, new cases every year in impoverished rat-infested rural areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America 12. However, an investigation has created some doubts about the nature of Black Death by implicating other possible causes such as Ebola-like viruses or other infectious agents Sincewhen plague appeared in Europe, and especially afterEcstacy (Vocal) - Big Tony - Ecstacy syphilis was observed in Europe, theories on infectious and communicable diseases were formulated.
Many scientists during these times developed ideas of contagion, which had an effect on public health regulations and the structure of cities. Moreover, Im A Woman - Peggy Lee - The Singles Collection on plague control during that period reinforced the idea of public health measures for prevention of infectious diseases, an idea that was previously vague.
Since the 11th century, Venice, a naval and commercial power, had a special interest in the Eastern Mediterranean and later took advantage of the redistribution of the land of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade Gradually and through conflicts after this crusade, this city-state on the Adriatic Sea gained control of the Ionian Islands, Crete, and some coastal cities of mainland Greece and established a network of trading posts.
The islands of Corfu Greek name KerkyraZante ZakynthosCephalonia, and Leukada were incorporated into the Venetian State in,andrespectively, and remained part of it until its demise in Our study investigates plague on the 4 islands during the 17th and 18th centuries. This period was selected because after the second half of the 17th century plague was observed only sporadically with limited epidemics.
Plague was last observed in Venice inwhereas in southeastern Europe, plague was observed Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous the 19th century During the early 18th century, changes took place in the Venetian health policies, and Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous strategic and economic role of the islands increased after the gradual loss of the great trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea.
This location made them a gateway to and Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous the Ottoman Empire and a frontier of Venice to the East. However, despite their proximity to mainland Greece, political and institutional differences were substantial between these islands and the neighboring Greek coast that was under Ottoman rule. Research regarding plague in this area has been limited. Moreover, comparisons of Venetian health policies regarding plague and their effectiveness on the Ionian Islands with those of neighboring Greece have not been made.
The 4 large Ionian Islands, which were under Venetian rule, and the Greek peninsula, which was under Ottoman rule, during the period studied 17th and 18th centuries.
Our study had 4 goals. The first goal was to identify epidemics of plague that struck the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries. The second goal was to reconstruct the course of the epidemics. The third goal was to highlight differences in the prevalence of infection on the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries and discuss the epidemiologic status of the islands compared with that of the neighboring coast of the Greek peninsula.
The fourth goal was to investigate and describe measures taken by the Venetian authorities on these islands against plague during the study period.
On-site research was conducted in the Venetian state archive Archivio di Stato di Venezia. Unpublished archival material dealing with the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries was investigated with emphasis on periods of epidemiologic crises. Additionally, several historical sources providing information about plague epidemics in the Mediterranean area during the 17th and 18th centuries were reviewed.
This dissertation 13 reviews the subject historically. This article examines the subject from medical and epidemiologic points of view. Archival sources show that most cases of plague on the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries were imported from the neighboring coast of mainland Greece and ports in the southwestern Ottoman Empire. Only 2 epidemics were imported from the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea. Of 11 epidemics, 8 occurred during the 17th century and 3 occurred during the 18th century.
Plague struck Corfu in,and ; Zante in,and ; and Cephalonia in and Leukada had a disastrous epidemic ina few decades after the island became part of the Venetian Republic.
During the 18th century, plague had waned despite an outbreak along the southwestern coast of the Ottoman Empire, a short distance from the coasts of the Ionian Islands. In the 18th century, the southern Balkans had repeated waves of plague in —, —, —, —, —, —, and — Only 14 plague-free years are described for the Greek peninsula during the 18th century These epidemics affected cities and villages in western Peloponnese and western mainland Greece, which, because of trade, were in constant contact with the Ionian Islands.
Because of commercial interests, contact between inhabitants of the islands and mainland Greece could not be halted.
However, vigorous attempts by Venetian authorities stopped all communication between these areas during plague outbreaks. Under these conditions, waning of plague epidemics during the 18th century may be attributed to sanitary measures taken by the Venetian government. These measures, among other regulations, dictated strict control of population movements, particularly during periods of epidemiologic crises. The efficacy of these measures is better appreciated because plague during the 17th century spread from lazzarettos institutions where those with plague or other similar diseases were isolated mainly because of negligence.
In contrast, 2 of the 3 epidemics during the 18th century were caused by incorrect diagnoses or delayed notification of the authorities.
Success of these measures became apparent in Corfu where plague was eradicated afteronly to reappear during British rule in the early 19th century The importance of Corfu to Venice, particularly after the loss of Crete inresulted in creation of an effective invisible wall against plague until the end of the Venetian domination in The city-states of northern Italy, including Venice, organized their defense against plague from the time of the Black Death 9.
Experience and observation provided the first tools against epidemics because scientific information about the cause of plague was not obtained until several centuries later at the end of the 19th century, through laboratory research conducted by Alexandre Yersin The Venetian State, on the basis of the belief in the miasmatic and contagious nature of plague and being a pioneer in organization of public health services conceived in the late Middle Ages, established regulations and practices in the city of the Doges and its conquests.
Archival sources showed that health board officers in Corfu and Zante were initially elected around However, it is likely that health boards had previously existed. The first lazzarettos were established in Corfu and Zante in and in Cephalonia and Leukada at the beginning of the 18th century.
The Venetian health policy was reformed in the 18th century. These reforms likely emphasized disease prevention and dealt with health emergencies The new policy was based on daily reports of health conditions on the islands and suspicious areas in the eastern Mediterranean, and included creation of a common public health framework identical laws for plague control, decrees, and institutions and infrastructures for all islands.
This policy would facilitate interventions and change the way in which local health officers were selected. The main goal of these reforms was improvement of the structure and function of lazzarettos. During the 18th century, new lazzarettos were established, and existing ones underwent extension and changes. Ina new statute defining the obligations and responsibilities of the heads of the institutions was introduced. According to this statute, during periods with no or low disease activity, lazzarettos referred directly to Venetian authorities and bypassed authority of local health boards Despite these new regulations, Venetian archives reported occasional problems in health services of the islands because of poorly trained health officers, who were elected from the local upper class and were eager to acquire greater political autonomy.
This situation resulted Shepherd - Laments conflicts between Venetian representatives and local health officials, as well as between local factions known as cittadini Archives show that until the end of the Venetian rule on the Ionian Islands, lazzarettos functioned as protective shields for Venice and transferred responsibility of plague control from Venice to peripheral areas When there was Down By The Lake - Sons Of The Ionian Sea - A New Deadly Intravenous or even suspicion that plague was present on an island, all links to Venice were immediately discontinued for the duration of the threat.
Islands were isolated by Drive - Gary Hoey - Hocus Pocus Live of the senatoand trade commenced only after the state of emergency had ended. During these periods, the Venetian Z Očí Do Očí - Minnesengři - Bělovláska did not intervene in the responsibilities and actions of local health inspectors because such intervention could provoke social unrest Thus, the cost for Venice was minor.
However, this action did not indicate negligence by the state mechanism each time plague affected an island and threatened Venice. Additionally, when plague occurred, residents were separated by health authorities into groups of healthy and sick persons regardless of social hierarchies. Persons affected by plague were kept in lazarettosand large numbers of infected persons were kept in hospitals, houses, or neighborhoods on the assumption that plague in these persons remained isolated.
Isolation was ensured by military force. Thus, plague-stricken areas resembled a large institution under constant inspection and surveillance and disconnected from the rest of society In contrast to measures taken on the Ionian Islands during the 17th and 18th centuries, mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, had a different mentality in dealing with plague.
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