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Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineauwhose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations. Through the works of Houston Stewart ChamberlainGobineau's ideas later influenced the Nazi racial ideology which saw " Aryan peoples " as innately superior to other putative racial groups.
Philologist J. Mallory argues that "As an ethnic designation, the word [Aryan] is most properly limited to the Indo-Iranians, and most justly to the latter where it still gives its name to the country Iran. Initially the term was used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities especially Indra and followed Vedic culture e. In Iranian languagesthe original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like " Alans " and " Iron ".
Derived from it were words like . The original meaning in Proto-Indo-European had a clear emphasis on the "in-group status" as distinguished from that of outsiders, particularly those captured and incorporated into the group as slaves. While in Anatoliathe base word has come to emphasize personal relationship, in Indo-Iranian the word has taken a more ethnic meaning. During the 19th century it was proposed that "Aryan" was also the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Nazis used the word "Aryan" to describe people in a racial sense. The Nazi official Alfred Rosenberg believed that the Nordic race was descended from Proto-Aryanswho he believed had prehistorically dwelt on the North German Plain and who had ultimately originated from the lost continent of Atlantis. The Nazis considered the purest Aryans to be those that belonged to the " Nordic race " physical ideal, known as the " master race " during Nazi Germany.
For example, Adolf Hitler and many Nazi officials had dark hair and were still considered members of the Aryan race under Nazi racial doctrine, because the determination of an individual's racial type depended on a preponderance of many characteristics in an individual rather than on just one defining feature. In Septemberthe Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws.
All Aryan Reich citizens were required to prove their Aryan ancestry, one way was to obtain an Ahnenpass by providing proof through baptismal certificates that all four grandparents were of Aryan descent.
In Decemberthe Nazis founded Lebensborn to counteract the falling Aryan birth rates in Germany, and to promote Nazi eugenics. The airya meant "Iranian", and Iranian anairya   meant and means "non-Iranian".
Arya may also be found as an ethnonym in Iranian languages, e. The Old Persian and Avestan evidence is confirmed by the Greek sources. The name of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia and of Media, Tunnel - EA80 - Reise also to the Bactrians and Sogdians on the north; for these speak approximately the same language, with but slight variations.
The trilingual inscription erected by Shapur's command gives us a more clear description. Doctor For My Heart - Modern Talking - Lets Talking!.Best Of languages used are ParthianMiddle Persian and Greek.
In Greek the inscription says: "ego The Bactrian language a Middle Iranian language inscription of Kanishka the Greatthe founder of the Kushan Empire at Rabatak, which was discovered in in an unexcavated site in Junior Parker* - Goodbye Little Girl / Walking The Floor Over You Afghanistan province of Baghlanclearly refers to this Eastern Iranian language as Arya.
In Iranian languagesthe original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like " Alans ", " Iron ". This was the first use of the form Arian verbatim in the English language. Haravia as a designation of the "Aryans" and associated the Aria with the place-name Ariana Av. Airyanathe homeland of the Aryans. The term "Aryan" came to be used as the term for the newly discovered Indo-European languagesand, by extension, the original speakers of those languages.
In the 19th century, "language" was considered a property of "ethnicity", and Untold Blasphemies - Hocico - Signos De Aberracion the speakers of the Indo-Iranian or Indo-European languages came to be called the Neighbourhood - Various - Now Thats What I Call Music!
35 Aryan race ", as contradistinguished from what came to be called the " Semitic race ". By the late 19th century, among Nic Fit - Sonic Youth - Dirty people, the notions of an "Aryan race" became closely linked to Nordicism Feliz Navidad - La Sonora Matancera - Navidades Con La Sonora (Christmas Time With Sonora Matancera), which posited Northern European racial superiority over all other Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate.
This " master race " ideal engendered both the " Aryanization " programs of Nazi Germanyin which the classification of people as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan" was most emphatically directed towards the exclusion of Jews. Western notions of an " Aryan race " rose to prominence in lateth- and earlyth-century racialisman idea most notably embraced by Nazism. The Nazis believed that the " Nordic peoples " who were also referred to as the " Germanic peoples " represent an ideal and "pure race" that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans.
The word was used by Herodotus in reference to the Iranian Medes whom he describes as the people who "were once universally known as Aryans".
The meaning of 'Aryan' that was adopted into the English language in the late The Door (Clip) - Turin Brakes - The Optimist LP century was the one associated with the technical term used in comparative philology, which in turn had the same meaning as that evident in the very oldest Old Indo-Aryan usage, i.
Accordingly, 'Aryan' Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate to refer to the languages of the Indo-Iranian language groupand by extension, native speakers of those languages. The inscription also refers to the deity Ahura Mazda as "the god of the Aryans", and to the ancient The Forgotten Instruments - Fragmenta - The Forgotten Instruments language as "Aryan".
In this sense the word seems to have referred to the elite culture of the ancient Iranians, including both linguistic, cultural and religious aspects. The term Arya is used 36 times in 34 hymns in the Rigveda. According to TalageriThe Rig Veda. A Historical Analysis " the particular Vedic Aryans of the Rigveda were one Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate among these Puruswho called themselves Bharatas.
While the word may ultimately derive from a tribal name, already in the Rigveda it appears as a religious distinction, separating those who sacrifice "properly" from those who do not belong to the historical Vedic religionpresaging the usage in later Hinduism where the term comes to denote religious righteousness or piety.
In RV 9. Arya and Anarya are primarily used in the moral sense Pure Thoughts - Lightheaded - Pure Thoughts the Hindu Epics. People are usually called Arya or Anarya based on their behaviour. Arya is typically one who follows the Dharma.
In the Indian spiritual context, Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate can be applied to Rishis or to someone who has mastered the four noble truths and entered upon the spiritual path. HinduismBuddhismJainism and possibly Sikhism. Such a person must have performed all kinds of penances and sacrifices according to Vedic literatures many, many times after taking bath in all the holy places of pilgrimage.
Such a person is considered to be the best of the Arya family " Bhagavata Purana 3. According to Swami Vivekananda" A child materially born is not an Arya; the child born in spirituality is an Arya. Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate children that come with curses, that slip into the world, just in a moment of inadvertence, because that could not be prevented — what can we expect of such progeny?
Swami Dayananda founded a Dharmic organisation Arya Samaj in Sri Aurobindo published a journal combining nationalism and spiritualism under the title Arya from to Buddha's Dharma and Vinaya are the ariyassa dhammavinayo.
In the 19th century, linguists still supposed that the age of a language determined its "superiority" because it was assumed to have genealogical purity. The groundwork for this thought had been laid by Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron. In particular, German scholar Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel published in the first theory linking the Indo-Iranian and the German languages under the Aryan group. Translating the sacred Indian texts of the Rig Veda in the s, German linguist Friedrich Max Muller found what he believed to Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate evidence of an Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate This Is My Promo - Sway - This Is My Promo (Volume 1 & 2) of India by Hindu Brahmins,kshatriyas,Vaishay a group he described as "the Arya".
Muller was careful to note in his Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate work that he thought Aryan was a linguistic category rather than a racial one. Nevertheless, scholars used Muller's invasion theory to propose their own visions of racial conquest through South Asia and the Indian Ocean. Inthe New Zealand polymath Edward Tregear argued that an "Aryan tidal-wave" had washed over India and continued to push south, through the islands of the East Indian archipelago, reaching the distant shores of New Zealand.
Scholars such as John BatchelorArmand de Quatrefagesand Daniel Brinton extended this invasion theory to the Philippines, Hawaii, and Japan, identifying indigenous peoples who they believed were the descendants of early Aryan conquerors. In the s Arthur de Gobineau supposed that "Aryan" corresponded to the suggested prehistoric Indo-European culture —, Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
Further, de Gobineau believed that there were three basic races — white, yellow Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate black — and that everything else was caused by race miscegenationwhich de Gobineau argued was the cause of chaos. The " master race ", according to de Gobineau, were the Northern European "Aryans", who had remained "racially pure".
Southern Europeans to include Spaniards and Southern FrenchmenEastern Europeans, North Africans, Middle Easterners, Iranians, Central Asians, Indians, he all considered racially mixed, degenerated through the miscegenationand thus less than ideal. By the s a number of linguists and anthropologists argued that the "Aryans" themselves had originated somewhere in northern Europe. The distinguished biologist Thomas Henry Huxley agreed with him, coining the term "Xanthochroi" to refer to fair-skinned Europeans as opposed to darker Mediterranean peoples, who Huxley called "Melanochroi".
This " Nordic race " theory gained traction following the publication of Charles Morris 's The Aryan Racewhich touches racist ideology. To this idea of "races", Vacher de Lapouge espoused what he termed selectionismand which had two aims: first, achieving the annihilation of trade unionists, considered "degenerate"; second, the prevention of labour dissatisfaction through the creation of "types" of man, each "designed" for one specific task See the novel Brave New World for a fictional treatment of this idea.
Meanwhile, in India, the British colonial government had followed de Gobineau's arguments along another line, and had fostered the idea of a superior "Aryan race" that co-opted the Indian caste system Amadeus - Unknown Artist - Masterworks favor of imperial interests.
The European developments not only allowed the British to identify themselves as More - Dža Ili Bu - Lepa Kaseta, but also allowed the Brahmins to view themselves as on-par with the British. In The Secret DoctrineHelena Petrovna Blavatsky described the " Aryan root race " as the fifth of seven " Root races ", dating their souls as having begun to incarnate about a million years ago in Atlantis.
The Semites were a subdivision of the Aryan root race. The Semites, especially the Arabs, are later Aryans — degenerate in spirituality and perfected in materiality. To these belong all the Jews and the Arabs. Aryan and Zoroastrian. But "the antecedents of [present-day] Iranian ultra-nationalism can be traced back to the writings of late nineteenth-century figures such as Mirza Fatali Akhundov and Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani.
Demonstrating affinity with Orientalist views of the supremacy of the Aryan peoples and the mediocrity of the Semitic peoplesIranian nationalist discourse idealized pre-Islamic [ Achaemenid and Sassanid ] empires, whilst negating the 'Islamization' of Persia by Muslim forces. In the United States, the best-selling book Race Life of the Aryan Peoples by Joseph Pomeroy Widney consolidated in the popular mind the idea that the word "Aryan" is the proper identification for "all Indo-Europeans", and that " Aryan Americans " of the "Aryan race" are destined to fulfill America's manifest destiny to form an American Empire.
Gordon Childe would later regret it, but the depiction of Aryans as possessors of a "superior language" became a matter of national pride in learned circles of Germany portrayed against the background that World War I was lost because Germany Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate been betrayed from within by miscegenation and the "corruption" of socialist trade unionists and other "degenerates".
Alfred Rosenberg —one of the principal architects of Nazi ideological creed—argued for a new " religion of the blood ", based on the supposed innate promptings of the Nordic soul to defend its "noble" character against racial and cultural degeneration. In its "appalling medical model", the annihilation of the "racially inferior" Untermenschen was sanctified as the excision of a diseased organ in an otherwise healthy body,  which led to the Holocaust.
By the end of World War II, the word "Aryan" among a number of people had lost its Romantic or idealist connotations and was associated by many with Nazi racism instead. By then, the term " Indo-Iranian " and " Indo-European " had made most uses of the term "Aryan" superfluous in the eyes of a number of scholars, and "Aryan" now survives in most Sutani Panga - AfricanShowBoyz* - Spiritual Song usage only in the term " Indo-Aryan " to indicate speakers of North Indian languages.
It has been asserted by one scholar that Indo-Aryan and Aryan may not be equated and that such an equation is not supported by the historical evidence,  though this extreme viewpoint is not widespread. The use of the term Negrodation Of Character - Angry Aryans - Old School Hate designate speakers of all Indo-European languages in scholarly usage is now regarded by some scholars as an "aberration to be avoided.
Wells  such as the science fiction author Poul Anderson and scientists writing for the popular media, such as Colin Renfrew. Echoes of "the 19th century prejudice about 'northern' Aryans who were confronted on Indian soil with black barbarians [ They argue that a large intrusion of immigrants can lead to ethnic conflicts such as the Cronulla riots in Australia and the civil unrest in France.
The invasion theory, has however been questioned by several scholars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the cultural and historical concept. For other uses of "Arya" and "Aryan", see Aryan disambiguation. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology.
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