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Jews in the Army of the Kingdom of Italy By Andrew J. The Italian Jews of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were one of the most fervent nationalist groups in the nascent Italian State. As a result, they actively enlisted in the army of X_Ample - Various - Code Techno Sessions Sampler Vol.
2 Kingdom of Italy and its predecessor, the army of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. Indeed, their valorous and inspired service has prompted some authors to liken the Italian Jews of the nineteenth century to a type of military caste.
Many Jews, such as Giuseppe Ottolenghi, Cesare Rovighi and Enrico Guastalla attained high levels of command in the Italian military and were even counted among the King's most trusted martial advisors. Unfortunately, the events of World War II and the attitude that modern scholars maintain towards the Jews of Italy has resulted in the achievements of these inspired individuals and communities being lost to posterity.
Residents of the Italian peninsula since the days of the Maccabees, nowhere in Europe was Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω a longer tradition of a Jewish community so well versed and productive within the parameters of "native" culture. Fluent in Italian Jackson Browne - The Pretender before the Renaissance, Jews were involved in a cross-cultural exchange with fellow Christians in almost every state on the peninsula.
A unique Italian Jewish culture was formulated by the cultural milieu in the lands below the Alps possessed of its own religious rite and Judeo-Italian prayers even as Jews could not help but influence Italian Christians with their prominence in the fields of medicine, literature and business. While official state regulations restricted Jewish activity in certain fields, the coming of the Risorgimento removed hindrances that prevented Jews from laboring in state service.
The enlightened Savoyard Kings of Sardinia-Piedmont and later Italy allowed Jewish Italians to achieve success in a dizzying number of fields, most notably government administration and the military. Yet, for all their great achievements and dedication to the land of their birth, the history of the Italian Jews remains one of the least well documented in all of Europe, with perhaps only the Jews of the Balkan states receiving even less attention in the historical literature.
Countless treatises have been penned on various aspects of Jewish history in the German, Russian and Polish lands but only relatively few works have been published on the Italian Jews and none of these have been definitive. The Russo-Polish Jews have Dubnow and the German Jews have Graetz and Zunz, but no great Italian Jewish historian has emerged in order to recount the achievements of this grand civilization that spans the entire scope of Western history.
While it is too great an endeavor to attempt to record the entire treatise of Italian Jewry here, I hope to bring to light a small facet Gangs In The Street - Loverboy - Get Lucky this community's story: one which speaks to its high level of integration and dedicated service within the Italian state.
Although certain Jews like Abraham Castello, Salamone Fiorentino and Isaac Maurogonato played prominent roles in Parma, Venice and the Papal States, it was well accepted that Jews were not suited for the profession of arms. While individual Jews were able to achieve a modicum of political influence at certain courts, the practice of the military profession was strictly forbidden in Sardinia-Piedmont, Parma, Modena and the Papal States.
Lombardy and Venice, as provinces of Austria, technically allowed Jewish military service but there are no specific examples of Italian Jews from these regions serving in the Austrian army.
While these injunctions against Jews were either holdovers from more conservative times or the reflection of popular sentiments, the political clime of the early nineteenth century would not only pave the way for Italian Jewish emancipation but also remove the impediments to national service. The French Revolution and the military success of Napoleon were not only responsible for eliminating Jewish disabilities in Italy and elsewhere but also contradicted the popular belief that Jews were unfit or unable to serve in a military capacity.
The example of Andrea Massena proved particularly inspiring for the Jews of Italy, especially since Out Of Focus - Blue Cheer - Vincebus Eruptum was a scion of their community.
As general of the 32 nd division, he was personally responsible for liberating the Jewish communities of Northern Italy. But the affairs of the Italian Jews were All I Want For Christmas Is You - Extra Festive - Mariah Carey - Merry Christmas II You closely linked with the success of Bonaparte and his generals.
Following the debacle at Waterloo and the rise of the conservative Austrian, Prince Metternich, the old disabilities and injunctions once again saddled the Jews of Italy. But, the examples set by Napoleon and his Jewish Field Marshall were not lost on the younger generation of Italian Jews.
They had proven that the dominion of the Old Order could be challenged and that Jews, as much as any other citizen, could take up arms in Solenzara - Claude Ciari - Solenzara service of freedom, brotherhood and national unity. As the influence of republicanism and liberalism grew in the cities of the peninsula, so too did Jewish participation increase in the movements for freedom and Italian unification.
This change in dogma was spearheaded by the Codice Albertinopromulgated by the forward EVERYTIME I THINK OF YOU - FM - Everytime I Think Of You Savoyard King Charles Albert, which made Piedmont the first Italian state to grant its Jewish citizens equal rights and allow them to enter the military.
The collapse of the French monarchy in Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω as a springboard to a period of revolution and national foment that would ultimately result in the Italian unification of Republican revolutions erupted across the peninsula as the Italian people launched a concentrated effort to throw off the onerous yoke of the Habsburgs and Bourbons.
Revolutionary fervor spread to its greatest extent among Italian Jews and, in every state, rabbis actively preached recruiting sermons from their pulpits. The exonerations of their prelates were met with equal enthusiasm by the Jewish populace and, in every state throughout the north, Jews played an active role in the movement for independence. Ciro Finzi was important in the Milanese revolution popularly recalled as the "Five Days of Milan" and Daniel Manin was commander of the armed forces that ousted the Austrians and set up the Venetian Republic.
Jewish volunteers also formed the 7 th Company of Bersalgieri that performed admirably throughout the conflict with Austria, especially at the Battle of Bicocca where members of the 7 th rescued the colors of the 16 th regiment. Italian Jews from across the peninsula and even Europe flocked to the Republican flag and rushed to Rome to participate in its defense. Five Jews were present in the ranks of the Lombard Legion, among them Ciro Finzi and Giacomo Veneziano who were both martyred in the French onslaught that eventually spelled the end of the Republic.
When the situation proved untenable, and Garibaldi began his imperiled retreat to the north, there were eight Italian Jews in the entourage that followed him into exile. By the time King Victor Emmanuel II ascended the throne of Sardinia-Piedmont infull emancipation had already been granted to the Jews of his state.
Furthermore, Piedmont's Prime Minister, Camillo Cavour, was a firm proponent of equality for Italians of all faiths and brought his forceful personality to bear against what few inadvertent relics of intolerance remained in the Savoyard kingdom. Once again, Italian Jews from the North eagerly responded to the call to arms. The now storied Enrico Guastalla and Cesare Rovighi were among the legions of Italian Jews who enlisted in order to combat the Russian enemy.
The Italian War of Independence would not only realize the dream of Italian unification but also serve as the conflict in which many fabled Jewish veterans first saw combat.
There were already ninety Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω career officers in the army of Piedmont-Sardinia at the outbreak of hostilities and these numbers were swelled by a flood of Jewish volunteers. But the war of liberation would also initiate a new generation of Italian Jewish combatants, one which would eventually rise to the highest echelons of the Kingdom's army.
As the armies of Victor Emmanuel vanquished the forces of the Austrian Emperor and turned their attention to the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his mythic 1, single handedly defeated the Neapolitan army. There were 11 Jews serving in the ranks of the Garibaldiniincluding Enrico Guastalla who distinguished himself at Volturno and eventually became one of Garibaldi's most trusted aides.
As members of a nation spawned from the romantic and republican notions of the nineteenth century, the citizens of the Italian state viewed service in the military as one of the highest career aspirations and Jews proved themselves no less adherent to this ideal. Fervent nationalists and supporters of Glam (Acoustic) - Bananafishbones - Glam (Going Out Tonight) Savoy Dynasty, the decade of the s saw disproportionate numbers of Italian Jews enlist for service in King Victor Emmanuel's army.
Meanwhile, Italian Jews who had begun their careers in the wars of liberation continued to advance in the ranks of the army. Roberto Segre was promoted to captain of artillery and several Jews achieved the Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω rank in the Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω infantry and cavalry, including Enrico Guastalla. Ottolenghi was awarded the Cross of Savoy for valor and Guastalla was promoted for acts of bravery at Como, Brescia, Lonoto and Desenzano.
By only the Jewish citizens of the now truncated Papal State remained beyond the liberating policies of the Kingdom of Italy.
Roman Jews, prominent among them Chief Rabbi Angelo Citone, actively campaigned for the Eternal City's annexation by the Italian State and rejoiced when revolutionary foment provided a pretext for the Italian Army's invasion of Rome.
Once again, Jewish soldiers would play prominent roles in the forces that engaged the armies of Pope Pius. He would go on to serve on the international commission on Montenegro in and eventually became a military tutor to the children of King Umberto I. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in and became commander of the Turin Division in He would end his career in after serving two years as Minister of War and died shortly afterwards.
The outstanding service of Italian Jews in the Kingdom's military did not end with the conquest of Rome and the realization of the dream of Italian unification. Indeed, throughout the remainder of the century, Jews continued to retain their prominence in the highest ranks of the country's armed forces. He would also eventually achieve the rank of Lieutenant General.
With Italy's entry into the Great War inmany Jews answered the call to arms and enlisted in various branches of the military. Throughout the three years of Italy's involvement in the conflict 8, Italian Jews would perform valorous service within the ranks of the armed forces.
General Roberto Segre commanded artillery formations at the start of the war and was cited for bravery at the Battle of Gorizia. Throughout the war, Italian Jews also played an active role in the naval effort, although in much lesser numbers than their coreligionists in the army. In Benito Mussolini enacted discriminatory legislation against Italian Jews and barred all but two Jews from service in the military.
Many Jewish civilians, soldiers and veterans saw this as a great betrayal by the state which they had fought valiantly to both forge and defend. One can only imagine the response of great Italian Jewish militarists, such as Ottolenghi or Guastalla, had they lived to witness Mussolini's disgraceful edicts.
Indeed their reaction may have been similar to that of Colonel Roberto Segre or General Ascoli who committed suicide rather than resign their military commissions. This stance has not only sullied and obfuscated the achievements of Italian Jewry but also prevented the names of such inspired individuals as Ottolenghi, Guastalla, Rovighi and Segre Ξένος Στην Πόλη - Ανδριανός Νόνης - Χαμογελάω being remembered by posterity.
I also take umbrage with the above mentioned lachrymose approach as it distorts the historical record, for the events of one decade should not be used as the prism through which the entire history of a people is viewed.
Nowhere in Jewish history, perhaps not even in the United States, have Jewish citizens displayed the type of military ardor evident in Italian Jewry. In no other country have so many Jews achieved martial prestige, become commanding generals, or served in the capacity of Minister of War or Chief of Naval Intelligence.
Unfortunately, the attitude that many scholars have maintained towards the history of Italian Jewry has resulted in the achievements of this society being lost in obscurity. I feel that this fact renders a great injustice to Italian Jewish history in general, and incongruously discounts those Italian Jews whose belief in liberty, equality and brotherhood prompted them to offer their lives in exchange for the romantic ideal of a unified and democratic Italian Nation.
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