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The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. It is one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. It could have been as early as c. To a large extent the piece conforms to the characteristics deemed typical for the north German organ school of the baroque era with divergent stylistic influences, such as Toccata And Fugue In D Minor - Richard Morris German characteristics.
Despite a profusion of educated guesswork, there is not much that can be said with certainty about the first century of the composition's existence other than Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I it survived that period in a manuscript written by Johannes Ringk.
The first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was inthrough the efforts of Felix Mendelssohnwho also performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in Familiarity with the piece was enhanced in the second half of the 19th century by a fairly successful piano version by Carl Tausigbut it was not until the 20th century that its popularity rose above that of other organ compositions by Bach.
That popularity further increased, due for example to its inclusion in Walt Disney 's Fantasia in Stokowski 's orchestral transcriptionuntil this composition came to be considered the most famous work in the organ repertoire.
A wide, and often conflicting, variety of analyses has been published about the piece: for instance, in literature on organ music, it is often described as some sort of program music depicting a storm, while in the context of Disney's Fantasiait was promoted as absolute musicnothing like program music depicting a storm. In the last quarter of the 20th century, scholars such as Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece, and argued against its authenticity.
Bach-scholars like Christoph Wolff defended the attribution to Bach. Other commentators ignored the authenticity doubts or considered the attribution issue undecided. No edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis listed the Toccata and Fugue among the doubtful works, nor does its entry on the website of the Bach Archiv Leipzig even mention alternative views on the attribution issue.
Such defects show a carelessness deemed typical of Kellner, who left over 60 copies of works by Bach. The title page of Ringk's manuscript writes the title of the work in Italian as Toccata con Fuganames Johann Sebastian Bach as the composer of the piece, and indicates its tonality as "ex. In this sense, in Ringk's (They Long To Be) Close To You - Diana Ross - Greatest Hits, the piece is written down in D Dorian mode.
Another piece listed as Bach's was also known as Toccata and Fugue in D minor, and was equally entitled to the "Dorian" qualification. It was that piece, BWVthat received the "Dorian" nickname, that qualifier being effectively used to distinguish it from BWV Ringk's manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, which was common in the 18th century notes Toccata And Fugue In D Minor - Richard Morris be played on the pedal were indicated by "p. Printed editions of the BWV organ score invariably write the pedal line on a separate stave.
In Ringk's manuscript the upper stave is written down using the soprano clef as was common in the time when the manuscript originatedwhere printed editions use the treble clef. All other extant manuscript copies of the score date from at least several decades later: some of these, written in the 19th century, are related with each other in that they have similar solutions to the defects in the Ringk manuscript. Whether these derive from an earlier manuscript independent from Ringk's possibly in the C.
These near-identical 19th-century copies, the version Felix Mendelssohn knew, use the treble clef and a separate stave for the pedal. In general, the later copies show a less excessive use of fermatas in the opening measures and are more correct in making the note values fit the measures, but that may as well be from polishing a defective source as from deriving from a cleaner earlier source.
In the later copies the work is named for instance "Adagio" and "Fuga" for the respective parts of the workor "Toccata" for the work as a whole.
The name "Toccata" is most probably a later addition, similar to the title of Toccata, Adagio and FugueBWVbecause in the Baroque era such organ pieces would most commonly be called simply Prelude Praeludiumetc. German organ schools are distinguished into north German e.
Dieterich Buxtehude and south German e. Johann Pachelbel. The composition has stylistic characteristics Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I both schools: the stylus phantasticus and other north German characteristics are most apparent. A passage in the fugue of BWV is an exact copy of a phrase in one of Johann Pachelbel's D minor fantasias, and the first half of the subject is based on this Pachelbel passage as well.
At the time it was however common practice to create fugues on other composers' themes. BWV exhibits a typical simplified north German structure with a free opening toccataa fugal section fugueand a short free closing section. The Toccata begins with a single-voice I Want To Spend My Lifetime - Various - The Braun MTV Eurochart 99 - Volume 3 in the upper ranges of the keyboard, doubled at the octave.
It then spirals toward the bottom, where a diminished seventh chord appears which actually implies a dominant chord with a minor 9th against a tonic pedalbuilt one note at a time. This resolves into a D major chord: . Three short passages follow, each reiterating a short motif and doubled at the octave.
The section ends with a diminished seventh chord which resolved into the tonicD minor, through a flourish. The second section of the Toccata is a number of loosely connected figurations and flourishes; the pedal switches to the dominant key, A minor. This section segues into the third and final section of the Toccata, which consists almost entirely of a passage doubled at the sixth and comprising reiterations of the same three-note figure, similar to doubled passages in the first section.
After a brief pedal flourish, the piece ends with a D minor chord. The subject of the four-voice fugue is made up entirely of sixteenth noteswith an implied pedal point set against a brief melodic subject that first falls, then rises. Such violinistic figures are frequently encountered in Baroque music and that of Bach, both as fugue subjects and as material in non-imitative pieces. Unusually, the answer is in the subdominant key, rather than the traditional dominant. Although technically a four-part fugue, most of the time there are only three voices, and some of the interludes are in two, or even one voice notated as two.
Although only simple triadic harmony is employed throughout the fugue, there is an unexpected C minor subject entry, and furthermore, a solo pedal statement of the subject—a unique feature for a Baroque fugue. A multi-sectional coda follows, marked Recitativo. Although only 17 bars long, it progresses through five tempo changes.
The last bars are played Molto adagioand the piece ends with a minor plagal cadence. The performance time of the piece is usually around nine minutes, but shorter performance times e. The first section of the piece, the Toccata, takes somewhat less than a third of the total performance time. As was common practice for German music of the 17th century, the intended registration is not specified, and performers' choices vary from simple solutions such as organo pleno to exceedingly complex ones, like those described by Harvey Grace.
In the first century of its existence the entire reception history of the Toccata and Fugue in D minor consists of being saved from oblivion by maybe not more than a single manuscript copy.
The composition's third century took it from Bach's most often recorded organ piece to a composition with an unclear origin.
Despite Mendelssohn's opinion that it was "at the same time learned and something for the people",  followed by a fairly successful piano transcription in the second half of the 19th century,  it was not until the 20th century that it rose above the In Distortion We Trust - The Movie - Crucified Barbara - In Distortion We Trust notability of an organ piece by Bach.
The composition has been deemed as both "particularly suited to Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I organ",  and as "strikingly unorganistic". What remains is "the most famous organ work in existence",  that in its rise to fame was helped by various arrangements, including bombastic piano settings,  versions for full symphonic orchestra,  and alternative settings for more modest solo instruments.
Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I BWV was published for the first time, in the third of three bundles of "little known" organ compositions by Bach. Peters published the Toccata con Fuga as No. In the early s, Albert Schweitzer collaborated with Charles-Marie Widor to compile a complete edition of Bach's organ compositions, published by Schirmer.
IV, No. For BWV that means staying close to the Ringk manuscript. Consequently, the name of the piece was again given in Freddy Mercury* • Montserrat Caballé - Guide Me Home as Toccata con Fugaand the piece was again written down in D Dorian i.
However, more modern conventions were maintained with regard to using the treble Blueprints ForThe Heart - David London - To My Love in the upper stave and using a separate stave for the pedal. A facsimile of Ringk's manuscript was published in The first major public performance was by Mendelssohn, on 6 Augustin Leipzig. The concert was very well received by the critics, among them Robert Schumannwho admired the work's famous opening as an example of Bach's sense of humor.
He used the glockenspiel stop for the Prestissimo triplets in The Mouse Factory / Donald Duck - Minnies Yoo Hoo / Donald Duck Song opening section, and the quintadena stop for the repeated notes in bars 12— In early Archiv Produktion releases, the list on the sleeve contained the organ compositions in the order they appeared on the recording without distinction,  in the s BWV became Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I first;  but by the s, the font size of BWV was larger than that of the other compositions,  and in the s Walcha's recording of the piece became the only piece by Bach included in Toccata And Fugue In D Minor - Richard Morris Classic Mania CD set with popular tunes by various classical composers.
InE. Power Biggs recorded the Toccata 14 times, played on different European organs, and Columbia issued those recordings on a single album. Hans-Joachim Schulze describes the force of the piece on a record sleeve: . Here is elemental and unbounded power, in impatiently ascending and descending runs and rolling masses of chords, that only with difficulty abates sufficiently to give place to the logic and balance of the fugue.
With the reprise of the initial Toccata, the dramatic idea reaches its culmination amidst flying scales and with an ending of great sonority. Bach's Toccata and Fugue was not performed on the organ exclusively. The title page of the first publication of the piece already indicated that performance on the piano by one or two players was possible.
Tausig's version of the work was recorded on piano rolls several times in the first decades of the 20th century. In Johann Nikolaus Forkel 's early 19th century biography of Bachthe work is left unmentioned. Forkel probably did not even know of the composition. Hilgenfeldt's biography it is merely listed among the published works. Hilgenfeldt considers the Toccata and Fugue in F major the most accomplished of Bach's toccatas for organ.
InPhilipp Spitta devoted somewhat less than a page to the work in the first volume of his Bach biography. He assumed the work was written in the first year of Bach's second Weimar period — He saw more north German characteristics Buxtehude's restless style in the form of the Toccata, rather than south German Pachelbel's simple and quiet approach.
Spitta considered the fugue "particularly suited to the organ, and more especially effective in the pedal part. Spitta also detects a rhythmic figure that appears briefly in the concluding part of the work bar which, extensively elaborated, reappears in the keyboard Prelude in A minor, BWVa work he supposes to have been composed around He considers none of them written before Bach's later Weimar years so closer to than to Up to this point, none of the biographers seem to have given any special attention to BWV If mentioned, it is listed or described along with other organ compositions, but is far from being considered the best or the most famous of Bach's organ compositions, or even of his toccatas.
However, that was about to change. InSchweitzer reworked his biography for its first German edition. In that edition he indicates the work as "well-known". In the D minor toccata and fugue, the strong and ardent spirit has finally realised the laws of form. A single dramatic ground-thought unites the daring passage Atlanta Brass Ensemble - Sonic Fireworks Volume I of the toccata, that seems to pile up like wave on wave; and in the fugue the intercalated passages in broken chords only serve to Punishment Divine - Blind Guardian - A Night At The Opera the climax all the more powerful.
In Hubert Parry 's Bach biography, the work is qualified as "well known" and "one of the most effective of [Bach's] works in every way". He calls the Toccata "brilliantly rhapsodical", more or less follows Spitta in the description of the fugue, and is most impressed by the coda: "It would be hard to find a concluding passage more imposing or more absolutely adapted to the requirements of the instrument than this coda.
In the first volume of his Bach biography, Alberto Basso calls BWV "famosissimo" most famous and "celebratissima" most celebratedmaintaining that the popularity of these works hinges entirely on this composition.
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