Sirius is a binary star consisting of a main-sequence star of spectral type A0 or A1, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The distance between the two varies between 8.
Sirius appears bright because of its intrinsic luminosity and its proximity to the Solar System. At a distance of 2. Sirius is gradually moving closer to the Solar System, so it will slightly increase in brightness over the next 60, years. After that time, its distance will begin to increase, and it will become fainter, but it will continue to be the brightest star in the Earth's night sky for the nextyears.
It is 25 times more luminous than the Sun  but has a significantly lower luminosity than other bright stars such as Canopus or Rigel. The system is between and million years old. The more massive of these, Sirius B, consumed its resources and became a red giant before shedding its outer layers and collapsing into its current state as a white dwarf around million years ago.
Sirius is known colloquially as the " Dog Star ", reflecting its prominence in its constellationCanis Major Output - Sirus / Intensity Greater Dog. The brightest star in the night sky, Sirius is recorded in some of the earliest astronomical records. Its displacement from the ecliptic causes its heliacal rising to be remarkably regular compared to other stars, with a period of almost exactly The Egyptians continued to note the times of Sirius's annual return, which may have led them to the discovery of the year Sothic cycle and influenced the development of the Julian and Alexandrian calendars.
The ancient Greeks observed that the appearance of Sirius heralded the hot and dry summer and feared that it caused plants to wilt, men to weaken, and women to become aroused. To Greek observers, this signified emanations that caused its malignant influence. It was described as "burning" or "flaming" in literature. If it rose clear, it would portend good fortune; if it was misty or faint then it foretold or emanated pestilence.
Coins retrieved from the island from the 3rd century BC feature dogs or stars with emanating rays, highlighting Sirius's importance. He depicted it as one of six red-coloured stars see the Colour controversy section below. The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Julie - Outer Limits Recordings - Julie. Bright stars were important to the ancient Polynesians for navigation of the Pacific Ocean.
Its culmination at the winter solstice was marked by celebration in Hawaiiwhere it was known as Ka'ulua"Queen of Heaven". Many other Polynesian names have been recorded, including Tau-ua in the Marquesas IslandsRehua in New Zealand, and Ta'urua-fau-papa "Festivity of original high chiefs" and Ta'urua-e-hiti-i-te-tara-te-feiai "Festivity who rises with prayers and religious ceremonies" in Tahiti.
The indigenous Boorong people of northwestern Victoria named Sirius as Warepil. InEdmond Halley discovered the proper motion of the hitherto presumed "fixed" stars  after comparing contemporary astrometric measurements with those from the second century AD given in Ptolemy's Almagest.
The bright stars AldebaranArcturus and Sirius were noted to have moved significantly; Sirius had progressed about 30 arc minutes about Intro - Bananas - Hazlo Girar diameter of the Moon to the southwest.
InSirius became the first star Output - Sirus / Intensity have its velocity measured, the beginning of the study of celestial radial velocities.
Sir William Huggins examined the spectrum of the star and observed a red shift. In his book, CosmotheorosChristiaan Huygens estimated the distance to Sirius at times the distance from the Earth to the Sun about 0.
Scottish astronomer Thomas Henderson used his observations made in — and South African astronomer Thomas Maclear 's observations made in —, to determine that the value of the parallax was 0.
Inthe German astronomer Friedrich Bessel deduced from changes in the proper motion of Sirius that it had an unseen companion. The visible star is now sometimes known as Sirius A. Sincesome apparent orbital irregularities in the Sirius system have been observed, suggesting a third very small companion star, but this has never been confirmed.
The best fit to the data indicates Output - Sirus / Intensity six-year orbit around Sirius A and a mass of 0. An apparent "third star" observed in the s is now believed to be a background object.
InWalter Sydney Adamsusing a inch 1. Twiss in at Jodrell Bank using their stellar intensity interferometer. Around the year CE, the Greek astronomer of the Roman period, Claudius Ptolemydescribed Sirius as reddish, along with five other stars, BetelgeuseAntaresAldebaranArcturus and Polluxall of which are of orange or red hue. The 1st-century poet Marcus Manilius described it as "sea-blue", as did the 4th century Avienus.
InGerman astronomers Wolfhard Schlosser and Werner Bergmann published an account of an 8th-century Lombardic manuscript, which contains De cursu stellarum White Trash Caravan - El Ray - Highwave To Hell - 23 Golden Hits 2001-2006 by St.
Gregory of Tours. The authors proposed this was further evidence Sirius B had been a red giant at the time. Gregory had been referring to Arcturus. The possibility that stellar evolution of either Sirius A or Sirius B could be responsible for this discrepancy has been rejected by astronomers on the grounds that the timescale of thousands of years is too short and that there is no sign of the nebulosity in the system that would be expected had such a change taken place.
To the naked eye, it often appears to be flashing with red, white, and blue hues when near the horizon. From the Southern Hemisphere in early July, Sirius can be seen in both the evening where it Les Fleur - Ramsey Lewis - His Greatest Sides: Volume One after the Output - Sirus / Intensity and Output - Sirus / Intensity the morning where it rises before the Sun.
Sirius, along Jump Rope Song - Rod Stern - Give It Up For Procyon and Betelgeuseforms one of the three vertices of the Winter Triangle to observers in the Northern Hemisphere.
Due to precession and slight proper motionSirius will move further south in the future. Sirius can be observed in daylight with the naked eye under the right conditions. Ideally, the sky should be very clear, with the observer at a high altitude, the star passing overhead, and the Sun low on the horizon.
A periastron occurred in [c] and the pair have since been moving apart, making them easier to separate with a telescope. Sirius is a binary star system consisting of two white stars orbiting each other with a separation of about 20 AU [d] roughly the distance between the Sun and Uranus and a period of Currently 10, times less luminous in the visual spectrum, Sirius B was once the more massive of the two.
Early in its life, it is thought to have been two bluish-white stars orbiting each other in an elliptical orbit every 9. This might be an indication of dust in the system, which is considered somewhat unusual for a binary star.
InVigan and colleagues Output - Sirus / Intensity the VLT Survey Telescope to search for evidence of substellar companions, and were able to rule out the presence of giant planets 11 times more massive than Jupiter at 0.
Stellar models suggest that the star formed during the collapsing of a molecular cloud and that, after 10 million years, its internal energy generation was derived entirely Sleep For Now - NESMETAL - Ordimary Nan OST [Disc 1] nuclear reactions.
The core became convective and used the CNO cycle for energy generation. At this point, it will pass through a red giant stage, then settle down to become a white dwarf. Sirius A is classed as an Am star because the spectrum shows deep metallic absorption lines indicating an enhancement in elements heavier than helium, such as iron.
The high surface content of metallic elements is unlikely to be true of the entire star; rather the iron-peak and heavy metals are radiatively levitated towards the surface. Sirius B is one of the most massive white dwarfs known. With a mass of 1. This mass is packed into a volume roughly equal to the Earth's.
A white dwarf forms after a star has evolved from the main sequence and then passed through a red giant stage. This Output - Sirus / Intensity when Sirius B was less than half its current age, around million years ago. While it passed through the red giant stage, Sirius B may have enriched the metallicity of its companion.
This star is primarily composed of a carbon—oxygen mixture that was generated by helium fusion in the progenitor star. Sinceirregularities have been observed in the orbits of Sirius A and B with an apparent periodicity of 6—6. A study concluded that such a companion likely exists, with a mass of roughly 0. More recent and accurate astrometric observations by the Hubble Space Telescope ruled out the existence of such an object entirely. The study predicted an astrometric movement of roughly 90 mas 0.
This ruled out any objects orbiting Sirius A with more than 0. The study was also able to rule out any companions to Sirius B with more than 0. Effectively, there are almost certainly no additional bodies in the Sirius system larger than a small brown dwarf or large exoplanet. InEjnar Hertzsprung was the first to suggest that Sirius was a member of the Ursa Major Moving Groupbased on his observations of the system's movements across the sky. The Ursa Major Group is a set of stars that share a common motion through space.
It was once a member of an open clusterbut has since become gravitationally unbound from the cluster. The other two are the Hyades and the Pleiadesand each of these clusters consists of hundreds of stars.
It was discovered during a statistical analysis of Gaia data. Output - Sirus / Intensity cluster Output - Sirus / Intensity over a thousand times further away from us than the star system.
Sirius has over Output - Sirus / Intensity other designations and names attached to it. This name is widely used on medieval astrolabes from Western Europe. As Mrgavyadha, the star represents Rudra Shiva. Its astrological symbol was listed by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa. Many cultures have historically attached special significance to Sirius, particularly in relation to dogs. Canis Major was classically depicted as Orion 's dog. The Ancient Greeks thought that Sirius's emanations could affect dogs adversely, making them behave abnormally during the "dog days", the hottest days of the summer.
The Romans knew these days as dies canicularesand the star Sirius was called Canicula, "little dog". The excessive panting of dogs in hot weather was thought to place them at risk Output - Sirus / Intensity desiccation and disease. In extreme cases, a foaming dog might have rabies, which could infect and kill humans they had bitten.
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky On summer nights, star of stars, Orion's Dog they call it, brightest Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat And fevers to suffering humanity. In Iranian mythology, especially in Persian mythology and in Zoroastrianismthe ancient religion of PersiaSirius appears as Tishtrya and is revered as the rain-maker divinity Tishtar of New Persian poetry. Beside passages in the sacred texts of the Avestathe Avestan language Tishtrya followed by the version Tir in Middle and New Persian is also depicted in the Persian epic Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.
Due to the concept of the yazataspowers which are "worthy of worship", Tishtrya is a divinity of rain and fertility and an antagonist of apaoshathe demon of drought.
In this struggle, Tishtrya is depicted as a white horse. Many nations among the indigenous peoples of North America also associated Sirius with canines; the Seri and Tohono O'odham of the southwest note the star as a dog that follows mountain sheep, while the Blackfoot called it "Dog-face". Several cultures also associated the star with a bow and arrows.
The ancient Chinese visualized a large bow and arrow across the southern sky, formed by the constellations of Puppis and Canis Major.
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