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A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December In many countries, the seasons of the year are determined by reference to the solstices and the equinoxes.
The term solstice can also Pursuit of What - Horizons used in a broader sense, as the day when this occurs. The day of a solstice in either hemisphere has either the most sunlight of the year summer solstice or the least sunlight of the year winter solstice for any place other than the Equator. Alternative terms, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, are " June solstice " Pastorale - Erik Wøllo - Traces • Images Of Light • Solstice (Special Remastered Editions - Three Di " December solstice ", referring to the months in which they take place every year.
The word solstice is derived from the Latin sol "sun" and sistere "to stand still"because at the solstices, the Sun's declination appears to "stand still"; that is, the seasonal movement of the Sun's daily path as seen from Earth stops at a northern or southern limit before reversing direction. For an observer on the North Polethe Sun reaches the highest position in the sky once a year in June.
The day this occurs is called the June solstice day. Similarly, for an observer on the South Polethe Sun reaches the highest position on the December solstice day. When it is the summer solstice at one Pole, it is the winter solstice on the other. The Sun's westerly motion never ceases as Earth is continually in rotation.
However, the Sun's motion in declination comes to a stop at the moment of solstice. In that sense, solstice means "sun-standing". This Pastorale - Erik Wøllo - Traces • Images Of Light • Solstice (Special Remastered Editions - Three Di scientific word descends from a Latin scientific word in use in the late Roman Republic of the 1st century BC: solstitium.
Pliny uses it a number of times in his Natural History with a similar meaning that it has today. It contains two Latin-language morphemes, sol"sun", and -stitium"stoppage". Relative velocity is the motion of an object from the point of view of an observer in a frame of reference. From a fixed position on the ground, the Sun appears to orbit around Earth. To an observer in an inertial frame of referenceplanet Earth is seen to rotate about an axis and revolve around the Sun in an elliptical path with the Sun at one focus.
Earth's axis is tilted with respect to the plane of Earth's orbit and this axis maintains a position that changes little with respect to the background of stars. An observer on Earth therefore sees a solar path that is the result of both rotation and revolution. The component of the Sun's motion seen by an earthbound observer caused by the revolution of the tilted axis — which, keeping the same angle in space, is oriented toward or away from the Sun — is an observed daily increment and lateral offset of the elevation of the Sun at noon for approximately six months and observed daily decrement for the remaining six months.
At maximum or minimum elevation, the relative yearly motion of the Sun perpendicular to the horizon stops and reverses direction. Outside of the tropics, the maximum elevation occurs at the summer solstice and the minimum at the winter solstice.
The path of the Sun, or eclipticsweeps north and south between the northern and southern hemispheres. The days are longer around the summer solstice and shorter around the winter solstice. This is known as an equinox. There are two solstices and two equinoxes in a tropical year. The seasons occur because the Earth's axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its orbital plane the plane of the ecliptic but currently makes an angle of about As a consequence, for half the year the Northern Hemisphere is inclined toward the Sun while for the other half year the Southern Hemisphere has this distinction.
The two moments when the inclination of Earth's rotational axis has maximum effect are the solstices. At the June solstice the subsolar point is further north than any other time: at latitude Similarly at the December solstice the subsolar point is further south than any other time: at latitude The subsolar point will cross every latitude between these two extremes exactly twice per year.
Also during the June solstice, places on the Arctic Circle latitude That is the midnight sun or midsummer -night sun or polar day. On the other hand, places on the Antarctic Circle latitude That is the polar night. During the December Solstice, the effects on both hemispheres are just the opposite.
This sees polar sea ice re-grow annually due to lack of sunlight on the air above and surrounding sea. Orientation of the terminator division between night and day depends on the season. Illumination of Earth by Sun on 21 June.
The orientation of the terminator shown with respect to the Earth's orbital plane. Illumination of Earth Johns Blues - Roy Buchanan - Roy Buchanan Sun on 21 December. Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the north. Far right: southern solstice. Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the south. Far left: northern solstice. The concept of the solstices was embedded in ancient Greek celestial navigation.
As soon as they discovered that the Earth is spherical  they devised the concept of the celestial sphere an imaginary spherical surface rotating with the heavenly bodies ouranioi fixed in it the modern one does not rotate, but the stars in it do. As long as no assumptions are made concerning the distances of those bodies from Earth or from each other, the sphere can be accepted as real and is in fact still in use. The stars move across the inner surface of the celestial sphere along the circumferences of circles in parallel planes  perpendicular to the Earth's axis extended indefinitely into the heavens and intersecting the celestial sphere in a celestial pole.
Cleomedes Pastorale - Erik Wøllo - Traces • Images Of Light • Solstice (Special Remastered Editions - Three Di . The term heliacal circle is used for the ecliptic, which is in the center of the zodiacal circle, conceived as a band including the noted constellations named on mythical themes. Other authors Rise - Boyzone - Wembley Arena 21/12/13 (20th Anniversary Tour 2013) Zodiac to mean ecliptic, which first appears in a gloss of unknown author in a passage of Cleomedes where he is explaining that the Moon is in the zodiacal circle as well and periodically crosses the path of the Sun.
As some of these crossings represent eclipses of the Moon, the path of the Sun is given a synonym, the ekleiptikos kuklos Sad Goodbye - Troy Cassar-Daley - Sad Goodbye ekleipsis"eclipse".
The two solstices can be distinguished by different pairs of names, depending on which feature one wants to stress. The solstices as well as the equinoxes mark the middle of the seasons in East Asian calendars. The term solstice can also be used in a wider sense, as the date day that such a passage happens. The solstices, together with the equinoxes, are connected with the seasons. In some languages they are considered to start or separate the seasons; in others they are considered to be centre points in Englandin the Northern Hemisphere, for example, the period around the northern solstice is known as Pastorale - Erik Wøllo - Traces • Images Of Light • Solstice (Special Remastered Editions - Three Di. Midsummer's Daydefined as St.
Johns Day by the Christian Churchis June 24, about three days after the solstice itself. Similarly December 25 is the start of the Christmas celebration, and is the day the Sun begins to return to the Northern Hemisphere.
The traditional British and Irish often main rent and meeting days of the year: "the usual quarter days " was at first those of the solstices and equinoxes. Many cultures celebrate various combinations of the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, and the midpoints between them, leading to various holidays arising around these events.
During the southern or winter solsticeChristmas is the most widespread contemporary holiday, while YaldaSaturnaliaKarachunHanukkahKwanzaaand Yule are also celebrated around this time.
In East Asian cultures, the Dongzhi Festival is celebrated on the winter solstice. For the northern or summer solsticeChristian cultures celebrate the feast of St. John from June 23 to 24 see St. For the vernal spring equinox, several springtime festivals are celebrated, such as the Persian Nowruzthe observance in Judaism of Passoverthe rites of Easter in most Christian churches, as well as the Wiccan Ostara. The autumnal equinox is associated with the Jewish holiday of Sukkot and the Wiccan Mabon.
Further north, the Atacama people formerly celebrated this date with a noise Flow Gently - Georgia Gibbs - Georgia Gibbs And Orchestra, to call the Sun back. Further east, the Aymara people celebrate their New Year on June A celebration occurs at sunrise, when the sun shines directly through the Gate of the Sun in Tiwanaku.
In the Hindu calendartwo sidereal solstices are named Makara Sankranti which marks the start of Uttarayana and Karka Sankranti which marks the start of Dakshinayana. The former occurs around January 14 each year, while the latter occurs around July 14 each year. These mark the movement of the Sun along a sidereally fixed zodiac precession is ignored into Makara, the zodiacal sign which corresponds with Capricornand into Karka, the zodiacal sign which corresponds with Cancerrespectively.
The Amundsen—Scott South Pole Station celebrates every year on June 21 a midwinter party, to celebrate that the Sun is at its lowest point and coming back. The reconstructed Cahokia Woodhengea large timber circle located at the Mississippian culture Cahokia archaeological site near Collinsville, Illinois is the site of annual equinox and solstice sunrise observances.
Out of respect for Native American beliefs these events do not feature ceremonies or rituals of any kind. Unlike the equinox, the solstice time is not easy to determine. This difference is hardly detectable with indirect viewing based devices like sextant equipped with a vernierand impossible with more traditional tools like a gnomon  or an astrolabe.
Those accuracy issues render it impossible to determine the solstice day based on observations made within the 3 or even 5 days surrounding the solstice without the use of more complex tools. Accounts do not survive but Greek astronomers must have used an approximation method based on interpolation, which is still used Arnie Rue - L.A. Jungle some amateurs. This method consists of recording the declination angle at noon during some days before and after the solstice, trying to find two separate days with the same declination.
When those two days are found, the halfway time between both noons is estimated solstice time. An interval of 45 days has been postulated as the best one to achieve up to a quarter-day precision, in the solstice determination. Astronomical almanacs define the solstices as the moments when the Sun passes through the solstitial colurei.
The solstices always occur between June 20 and 22 and between December 20 and 23 with the 21st and 22nd being the most common dates. The day orbit of Mars around the Sun almost twice that of the Earth causes its summer and winter solstices to occur at approximately month intervals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Solar event.
This article is about the astronomical Pastorale - Erik Wøllo - Traces • Images Of Light • Solstice (Special Remastered Editions - Three Di. For the articles about the specific solstice, see June solstice and December solstice. For cultural celebrations, see Midsummer and Midwinter. For other uses, see Solstice disambiguation. Not to Reflections (Original Mix) - Daniel Gregory - Reflections confused with equinox.