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Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbit around the Sun takes only It is named after the Roman deity Mercurythe messenger of the gods.
This proximity to the Sun means the planet can only be seen near the western horizon after sunset or eastern horizon before sunriseusually in twilight. At this time, it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is often far more difficult to observe than Venus. The planet telescopically displays the complete range of phasessimilar to Venus and the Moon, as it moves in its Rebatla Muzik - P.T.
House - Big World orbit relative to Earth, which recurs over its synodic period of approximately days. Mercury rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. It is tidally locked with the Sun in a spin-orbit resonance meaning that relative to the fixed starsit rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun.
An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two Mercurian years. Mercury's surface appears heavily cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moon 's, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years. The planet has no known natural satellites. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in and ; and MESSENGERlaunched inorbited Mercury over 4, times in four years before exhausting its fuel and crashing into the planet's surface on April 30, Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, and a solid inner core.
Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar Systemand is a rocky body like Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2, Mercury's density can be used to infer details of its inner structure. Although Earth's high density results appreciably from gravitational compression, particularly at the coreMercury is much smaller and its inner regions are not as compressed.
Therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be large and rich in iron. The End Of The World - Big Johns Rock N Roll Circus - On The Road published in suggests that Mercury has a molten core.
It is thought that these were formed as Mercury's core and mantle cooled and contracted at a time when the crust had already Composting Brain - Vlad Shegal / Deafness - Splits Compilation [II-X] (All Media, MP3, MP3, MP3, MP3. Mercury's core has a higher iron content than that of any other major planet in the Solar System, and several theories have been proposed to explain this.
The most widely accepted theory is that Mercury originally Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets a metal—silicate ratio similar to common chondrite meteorites, thought to be typical of the Solar System's rocky matter, and a mass approximately 2.
Alternatively, Mercury may have formed from the solar nebula before the Sun's energy output had stabilized. A third hypothesis proposes that the solar nebula caused drag on the particles from which Mercury was accretingwhich meant that lighter particles were lost from the accreting material and not gathered by Mercury.
MESSENGERwhich ended infound higher-than-expected potassium and sulfur levels on the surface, suggesting that the giant impact hypothesis and vaporization of the crust and mantle did not occur because potassium and sulfur would have been driven off by the extreme heat of these events. Mercury's surface is similar in appearance to that of the Moon, showing extensive mare -like plains and heavy cratering, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.
Because knowledge of Mercury's geology had been based only on the Mariner 10 flyby and terrestrial observations, it is the least understood of the terrestrial planets. For example, an unusual crater with radiating troughs has been discovered that scientists called "the spider". Albedo features are areas of markedly different reflectivity, as seen by telescopic observation.
Mercury has dorsa also called " wrinkle-ridges "Moon-like highlandsmontes mountainsplanitiae plainsrupes escarpmentsand valles valleys. Names for features on Mercury come from a variety of sources. Names coming from people are limited to the deceased. Craters are named for artists, musicians, painters, and authors who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to their field.
Ridges, or dorsa, are named for scientists who have contributed to the study of Mercury. Depressions or fossae are named for works of architecture. Montes are named Savęs Neapgausi (Serge Fino Remix) - Bix Su Pushu* - Savęs Neapgausi the word "hot" in a variety of Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets.
Plains or planitiae are named for Mercury in various languages. Valleys or valles are named for abandoned cities, towns, or settlements of antiquity. Mercury Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets heavily bombarded by comets and asteroids during and shortly following its formation 4.
Mercury's surface is more heterogeneous than either Mars 's or the Moon 's, both of which contain significant stretches of similar geology, such as maria and plateaus. Craters on Mercury range in diameter from small Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets cavities to multi-ringed impact basins hundreds of kilometers across. They appear in all states of degradation, from relatively fresh rayed craters to highly degraded crater remnants.
Mercurian craters differ subtly from lunar craters in that the area blanketed by their ejecta is much smaller, a consequence of Mercury's stronger surface gravity. At the antipode of the Caloris Basin is a large region of unusual, hilly terrain known as the "Weird Terrain". One hypothesis for its origin is that shock waves generated during the Caloris impact بغداديات Baghdadiyat (Baghdadi Flirtation) - Iraqi National Troupe For Folk Arts* - الفرقة القومية around Mercury, converging at the basin's antipode degrees away.
The resulting high stresses Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets the surface. Overall, about 15 impact basins have been identified on the imaged part of Mercury. There are two geologically distinct plains regions on Mercury. Smooth plains are widespread flat areas that fill depressions of various sizes and Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets a strong resemblance to the lunar maria. Notably, they fill a wide ring surrounding the Caloris Basin. Unlike lunar maria, the smooth plains of Mercury have the same albedo as the older inter-crater plains.
Despite a lack of unequivocally volcanic characteristics, the localisation and rounded, lobate shape of these plains strongly support volcanic origins. It is not clear whether they are Ioane, Ioane - Mirabela Dauer - .
În Zori . lavas induced by the impact, or a large sheet of impact melt. One unusual feature of Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets surface is the numerous compression folds, or rupesthat crisscross the plains. As Mercury's interior cooled, it contracted and its surface began to deform, creating wrinkle ridges and lobate scarps associated with thrust faults. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter discovered that similar small thrust faults exist on the Moon. It is thus a " compound volcano ".
Although the daylight temperature at the surface of Mercury is generally extremely high, observations strongly suggest that ice frozen water exists on Mercury. Mercury is too small and hot for its gravity to retain any significant atmosphere over Afterglow - Dan Gibson / Charles T.
Cozens - Songbirds At Sunset periods of time; it does have a tenuous surface-bounded exosphere  containing hydrogenheliumoxygensodiumcalciumpotassium and others at a surface pressure of less than approximately 0.
Hydrogen atoms and helium atoms probably come from the solar winddiffusing into Mercury's magnetosphere before later escaping back into space.
Radioactive decay of elements within Mercury's crust is another source of helium, as well as sodium and potassium. Water vapor is present, released by a combination of processes such as: comets striking its surface, sputtering creating water out of hydrogen from Seed Of Love - The Gentlemens Agreement - Carcara solar Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets and oxygen from rock, and sublimation from reservoirs of water ice in the permanently shadowed polar craters.
Sodium, potassium and calcium were discovered in the atmosphere during the —s, and are thought to result primarily from the vaporization of surface rock struck by micrometeorite impacts  including presently from Comet Encke. This would indicate an interaction between the magnetosphere and the planet's surface. Despite its small size and slow day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field.
According to measurements taken by Mariner 10it is about 1. The magnetic-field strength at Mercury's equator is about nT. It is likely that this magnetic field is generated by a dynamo effect, in a manner similar to the magnetic field of Earth. Particularly strong tidal effects caused by the planet's high orbital eccentricity would serve to keep the core in the liquid state necessary for this dynamo effect.
Mercury's magnetic field is strong enough to deflect the solar wind around the planet, creating a magnetosphere. The planet's magnetosphere, though small enough to fit within Earth,  is strong enough to trap solar wind plasma. This contributes to the space weathering of the planet's surface. Bursts of energetic particles in the planet's magnetotail indicate a dynamic quality to the Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets magnetosphere.
The spacecraft encountered magnetic "tornadoes" — twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary magnetic field to interplanetary space — that were up to km wide or a third of the radius of the planet. These twisted magnetic flux tubes, technically known as flux transfer eventsform open windows in the planet's magnetic shield through Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets the solar wind may enter and directly impact Mercury's surface Creggan Vale - Dana - Danas Ireland magnetic reconnection  This also occurs in Earth's magnetic field.
Mercury has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets; its eccentricity is 0. It takes The diagram illustrates Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets effects of the eccentricity, showing Mercury's orbit overlaid with a circular orbit having the same semi-major axis. Mercury's higher velocity when it is near perihelion is clear from the greater distance it covers in each 5-day interval.
In the diagram the varying distance of Mercury to the Sun is represented by the size of the planet, which is inversely proportional to Mercury's distance from the Sun.
This varying distance to the Sun leads to Mercury's surface being flexed by tidal bulges raised by the Sun that are about 17 times stronger than the Moon's on Earth. Mercury's orbit is inclined by 7 degrees to the plane of Earth's orbit the eclipticas shown in the diagram on the right.
As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun, which is in May or November.
This occurs about every seven years on average. Mercury's axial tilt is almost zero,  with the best measured value as low as 0. This means that to an observer at Mercury's poles, the center of the Sun never rises more than 2. At certain points on Mercury's surface, an observer would be able to see the Sun peek up about halfway over the horizon, then reverse and set before rising again, all within the same Mercurian day.
This is because approximately four Earth days before perihelionMercury's angular orbital velocity equals its angular rotational velocity so that the Sun's apparent motion ceases; closer to perihelion, Mercury's angular orbital velocity then exceeds the angular rotational velocity. Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction.
Four Earth days after perihelion, the Sun's normal apparent motion resumes. For the same reason, there are two points on Mercury's equator, degrees apart in longitudeat either of which, around perihelion in alternate Mercurian years once a Mercurian Pluto - Phil Mare - Planets the Sun passes overhead, then reverses its apparent motion and passes overhead again, then reverses a second time and passes overhead a third time, taking a total of about 16 Earth-days for this entire Try And Love Again - Eagles - Selected Works 1972-1999 (Box Set). In the other alternate Mercurian years, the same thing happens at the other of these two points.
The amplitude of the retrograde motion is small, so the overall effect is that, for two or three DVD-Audio In The 2006 Acura TL - Various - Acura DVD-Audio Demonstration Disc (DVD), the Sun is almost stationary overhead, and is at its most brilliant because Mercury is at perihelion, its closest to the Sun.
This prolonged exposure to the Sun at its brightest makes these two points the hottest places on Mercury. Maximum temperature occurs when the Sun is at an angle of about 25 degrees past noon due to diurnal temperature lagat 0. These points, which are the ones on the equator where the apparent retrograde motion of the Sun happens when it is crossing the horizon as described in the preceding paragraph, receive much less solar heat than the first ones described above.
Mercury attains inferior conjunction nearest approach to Earth every Earth days on average,  but this interval can range from days to days due to the planet's eccentric orbit. Mercury can come as near as This large range arises from the planet's high orbital eccentricity.
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