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Since scientific research began on dinosaurs in the early s, they were generally believed to be closely related to modern reptilessuch as lizards. The word " dinosaur " itself, coined in by paleontologist Richard Owencomes from the Greek for "fearsome lizard". This view began to shift during the so-called dinosaur renaissance in scientific research in the late s, and by the mids significant evidence had emerged that dinosaurs were much more closely related to birdswhich descended directly from the theropod group of dinosaurs  and are themselves a subgroup within the Dinosauria.
Knowledge of the origin of feathers developed as new fossils were discovered throughout the s and s and as technology enabled scientists to study fossils more closely. Among non-avian dinosaursfeathers or feather-like integument have been discovered in dozens of genera via direct and indirect fossil evidence.
Shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species Empty Promises - Turning Point - 1988-1991, British biologist Thomas Henry Huxley proposed that birds were descendants of dinosaurs.
He compared the skeletal structure Birds With Feathers Like Razorbaldes - Cadillacs & Dinosaurs - Attack! Of The Zombie Beavers Compsognathusa small theropod dinosaur, and the 'first bird ' Archaeopteryx lithographica both of which were found in the Upper Jurassic Bavarian limestone of Solnhofen. He showed that, apart from its hands and feathers, Archaeopteryx was quite similar to Compsognathus.
Thus Archaeopteryx represents a transitional fossil. In he published On the Animals which are most nearly intermediate between Birds and Reptilesmaking the case. For the next century, claims that birds were dinosaur descendants faded, with more popular bird-ancestry hypotheses including ' crocodylomorph ' and ' thecodont ' ancestors, rather than dinosaurs or other archosaurs.
InJohn Ostrom described Deinonychus antirrhopusa theropod that he had François Lubiana - Floralie in Montana in and whose skeletal resemblance to birds seemed unmistakable. Ostrom became a leading proponent of the theory that birds are direct descendants of dinosaurs. Further comparisons of bird and dinosaur skeletons, as well as cladistic analysis strengthened the case for the link, particularly for a branch of theropods called maniraptors.
Skeletal similarities include the neckthe pubisthe wrists semi-lunate carpalthe ' arms ' and pectoral girdlethe shoulder bladethe clavicle and the breast bone. In all, over a hundred distinct anatomical features are shared by birds and theropod dinosaurs. At the same time, paleoartists began to create modern restorations of highly active dinosaurs. InRobert T. Bakker drew a running Deinonychus.
His student Gregory S. Paul depicted non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs with feathers and protofeathers, starting in the late s. InEleanor M. Kish began to paint accurate images of dinosaurs, her Hypacrosaurus being the first one shown with its camouflage. Before the discovery of feathered dinosaur fossils, the evidence was limited to Huxley and Ostrom's comparative anatomy.
Some mainstream ornithologistsincluding Smithsonian Institution curator Storrs L. Olsondisputed the links, specifically citing the lack of fossil evidence for feathered dinosaurs. One of the earliest discoveries of possible feather impressions by non-avian dinosaurs is an ichnofossil Fulicopus lyellii of the million year old Portland Formation in the northeastern United States.
Gierlinski, and Kondrat have interpreted traces between two footprints in this fossil as feather impressions from the belly of a squatting dilophosaurid. Although some reviewers have raised questions about the naming and interpretation of this fossil, if correct, this early Jurassic fossil is the oldest known evidence of feathers, almost 30 million years older than the next-oldest-known evidence. After a century of hypotheses without conclusive evidence, well-preserved fossils of feathered dinosaurs were discovered during the s, and more continue to be found.
The area had repeatedly been smothered in volcanic ash produced by eruptions in Inner Mongolia million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous epoch. The fine-grained ash preserved the living organisms that it buried in fine detail. The area was teeming with life, with millions of leaves, angiosperms the oldest knowninsectsfishfrogssalamandersmammalsturtlesand lizards discovered to date.
The most important discoveries at Liaoning have been a host of feathered dinosaur fossils, with a steady stream of new finds filling in the picture of the dinosaur—bird connection and adding more to theories of the evolutionary development of feathers and flight.
Turner et al. Behavioural evidence, in the form of an oviraptorosaur on its nest, showed another link with birds. Its forearms were folded, like those of a bird. Not all of the Chinese fossil discoveries proved valid however. Ina supposed fossil of an apparently feathered dinosaur named Archaeoraptor liaoningensisfound in Liaoning Provincenortheastern China, turned out to be a forgery. Comparing the photograph of the specimen with another find, Chinese paleontologist Xu Xing came to the conclusion that it was Birds With Feathers Like Razorbaldes - Cadillacs & Dinosaurs - Attack!
Of The Zombie Beavers of two portions of different fossil animals. His claim made National Geographic review their research and they too came to the same conclusion. Insamples of amber were discovered to contain preserved feathers from 75 to 80 Birds With Feathers Like Razorbaldes - Cadillacs & Dinosaurs - Attack! Of The Zombie Beavers years ago during the Cretaceous era, with evidence that they were from both dinosaurs and birds.
Initial analysis suggests that some of the feathers were used for insulation, Valor - Fundamental - Demo 2010 not flight.
Only 11 specimens are currently known. The specimens are too rare to be broken open to study their melanosomesbut there are plans for using non-destructive high-resolution X-ray imaging. Inthe discovery was announced of a feathered dinosaur tail preserved in amber that is estimated to be 99 million years old.
Lida Xing, a researcher from the China University of Geosciences in Beijingfound the specimen at an Lipstick And Wire - Scuffy - Lipstick And Wire market in Myanmar.
It is the first definitive discovery of dinosaur material in amber. In Marchscientists reported that Archaeopteryx was likely capable of flightbut in a manner substantially different from that of modern birds. Several non-avian dinosaurs are now known to have been feathered. Direct evidence of feathers exists for several species.
In all examples, the evidence described consists of feather impressions, except those genera inferred to have had feathers based on skeletal or chemical evidence, such as the presence of quill knobs the anchor points for wing feathers on the forelimb or a pygostyle the fused vertebrae at the tail tip which often supports large feathers.
Integumentary structures that gave rise to the feathers of birds are seen in the dorsal spines of reptiles and fish. A similar stage in their evolution to the complex coats of birds and mammals can be observed in living reptiles such as iguanas and Gonocephalus agamids. Feather structures are thought to have proceeded from simple hollow filaments through several stages of increasing complexity, ending with the large, deeply rooted feathers with strong pens rachisbarbs and barbules that birds display today.
According to Prum's proposed model, at stage I, the follicle originates with a cylindrical epidermal depression around the base of the feather papilla. The first feather resulted when undifferentiated tubular follicle collar developed out of the old keratinocytes being pushed out. At stage II, the inner, basilar layer of Pessoa California - Babe Florida - Vol.
1 follicle collar differentiated into longitudinal barb ridges with unbranched keratin filaments, while the thin peripheral layer of the collar became the deciduous sheath, forming a tuft of unbranched barbs with a basal calamus. Stage IIIa involves helical displacement of barb ridges arising within the collar.
The barb ridges on the anterior midline of the follicle fuse together, forming the rachis. The creation of a posterior barb locus follows, giving an indeterminate number of barbs. This resulted in a feather with a symmetrical, primarily branched structure with a rachis and unbranched barbs. In stage IIIb, barbules paired within the peripheral barbule plates of the barb ridges, create branched barbs with rami and barbules. This resulting feather O Locco (Orbital Therapy Pt 3) - The Sun Electric* - O Locco one with a tuft of branched barbs without a rachis.
At stage IV, differentiated distal and proximal barbules produce a closed, pennaceous vane. A closed vane develops when pennulae on the distal barbules form a hooked shape to attach to the simpler proximal barbules of the adjacent barb.
Stage V developmental novelties gave rise to additional structural diversity in the closed pennaceous feather. Here, asymmetrical flight feathers, bipinnate plumulaceous feathers, filoplumes, powder down, and bristles evolved. Some evidence suggests that the original function of simple feathers was insulation.
In particular, preserved patches of skin in large, derived, tyrannosauroids show scuteswhile those in smaller, more primitive, forms show feathers. This may indicate that the larger forms had complex skins, with both scutes and filaments, or that tyrannosauroids may be like rhinos and elephantshaving filaments at birth and then losing them as they developed to maturity. If large tyrannosauroids were endothermsthey would have needed to radiate heat Prelud To Tragedy (Wilfred Josephs) - Trevor Duncan, Wilfred Josephs - The New Concert Orchestra Ot. There is an increasing body of evidence that supports the display hypothesis, which states that early feathers were colored and increased reproductive success.
Current research shows that it is plausible that theropods would have had the visual acuity necessary to see the displays. The End Of Our Road - Marvin Gaye - The End Of Our Road / Whats Going On Birds With Feathers Like Razorbaldes - Cadillacs & Dinosaurs - Attack! Of The Zombie Beavers study by Stevensthe binocular field of view for Velociraptor has been estimated to be 55 to 60 degrees, which is about that of modern owls.
Visual acuity for Tyrannosaurus has been predicted to be anywhere from about that of humans to 13 times that of humans. The idea that precursors of feathers appeared before they were co-opted for insulation is already stated in Gould and Vrba, Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability and elasticity. The metabolism of amino acids containing sulfur can be toxic; however, if the sulfur amino acids are not catabolized at the final products of urea or uric acid but used for the synthesis of keratin instead, the release of hydrogen sulfide is extremely reduced or avoided.
This hypothesis could be consistent with the need for high metabolic rate of theropod dinosaurs. It is not known Ghettotech Echt - Hochgobernitz - Seltsame Unruhe Einer Geräuschlosen Katze certainty at what point in archosaur phylogeny the earliest simple "protofeathers" arose, or whether they arose once or independently multiple times.
Filamentous structures are clearly present in pterosaursand long, hollow quills have been reported in specimens of the ornithischian dinosaurs Psittacosaurus and Tianyulong. They suggested that all of these structures may have been inherited from a common ancestor much earlier in the evolution of archosaurspossibly in an ornithodire from the Middle Triassic or earlier. Display feathers are also known from dinosaurs that are very primitive members of the bird lineage, or Avialae.
The most primitive example is Epidexipteryxwhich had a short tail with extremely long, ribbon-like feathers. Oddly enough, the fossil does not preserve wing feathers, suggesting that Epidexipteryx was either secondarily flightless, or that display feathers evolved before flight feathers in the bird lineage. The fact that only adult Ornithomimus had wing-like structures suggests that pennaceous feathers evolved for mating displays. Fossil feather impressions are extremely rare and they require exceptional preservation conditions to form.
Therefore, only a few non-avian feathered dinosaur genera have been identified. All fossil feather specimens have been found to show certain similarities. Due to these similarities and through developmental research, many scientists believe that feathers have only evolved once in dinosaurs. If a dinosaur falls at a point on an evolutionary tree within the known feather-bearing lineages, then its ancestors had feathers, and it is quite possible that it did as well.
All feathered species had filamentaceous or plumaceous downy feathers, with pennaceous feathers found among the more bird-like groups. The following cladogram is adapted from Godefroit et al.
Phylogenetic bracketing can also be used to evidence the lack of feathered integument Put The Blame On Me - Peter Kent - The Dream Machine Part 1&2 inference. For example, the presence of scaly integument in a specific clade would be a strong indicator that members in the clade would share similar integument, as independent Pleasure Avenue - Pleasure Avenue - Pleasure Avenue / 3F of feathers multiple times is unlikely, regardless if fossil evidence is present for all genera within the clade.
Grey denotes a clade that is not known to contain any feathered specimen at the time of writing, some of which have fossil evidence of scales. The presence or lack of feathered specimens in a given clade does not confirm that all members in a clade have the specified integument, unless corroborated with representative fossil evidence within clade members.
Tyrannosauroidea DilongYutyrannus — plumulaceous feathers.
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