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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other conscious animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking. It includes more specific mental states such as happinessentertainmentenjoymentecstasyand euphoria.
The early psychological concept of pleasure, the pleasure principledescribes it as a positive feedback mechanism that motivates the organism to recreate the situation it has just found pleasurable, and to avoid past situations that caused pain. The experience of pleasure is subjective and different individuals experience different kinds and amounts of pleasure in the same situation.
Many pleasurable experiences are associated with satisfying basic biological drives, such as eatingexercisehygienesleepand sex. Based upon the incentive salience model of reward — the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior  — an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component that is reflected in approach behavior, and a "liking" or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior.
Pleasure is a component of reward, but not all rewards are pleasurable e. The posterior ventral pallidum also contains a hedonic hotspot, while the anterior ventral pallidum contains a hedonic coldspot. Microinjections of opioidsendocannabinoidsand orexin are capable of enhancing liking in these hotspots.
Hedonic hotspots are functionally linked, in that activation of one hotspot results in the recruitment of the others, as indexed by the induced expression of c-Fosan immediate early gene.
Furthermore, inhibition of one hotspot results in the blunting of the effects of activating another hotspot. Pleasure is considered one of the core dimensions of emotion. It can be described as the positive evaluation that forms the basis for several more elaborate evaluations such as "agreeable" or "nice".
As such, pleasure is an affect and not an emotionas it forms one component of several different emotions. An active aversion to obtaining pleasure is called hedonophobia. Pleasure is often regarded as a bipolar construct, meaning that the two ends of the spectrum from pleasure to suffering are mutually exclusive. That is part of the circumplex model of affect. The degree to which something or someone is experienced as pleasurable not only depends on its objective attributes appearance, sound, taste, texture, etc.
For example, a sweater that has been worn by a celebrity And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon more Roscoe Mitchell - Tony Marsh - John Edwards - Improvisations (File, Album) than an otherwise identical sweater that has not, though considerably less And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon if it has been washed.
Epicurus and his followers defined the highest pleasure as the absence of suffering  and pleasure itself as "freedom from pain in the body and freedom from turmoil in the soul". He concludes that human needs and desires are endless, and "their satisfaction is by definition impossible. The 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer understood pleasure as a negative sensation, one that negates the usual existential condition of suffering. Utilitarianism and hedonism are philosophies that advocate maximizing the amount of pleasure and And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon the amount of suffering.
In the past, there has been debate as to whether pleasure is experienced by other animals rather than being an exclusive property of humankind; however, it is now known that animals do experience pleasure, as measured by objective behavioral and neural hedonic responses to pleasurable stimuli.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pleasure disambiguation. For other uses, see Pleasant disambiguation.
See also: Affective neuroscience. This section is transcluded from Reward system. Schools of hedonism. Key concepts. Related articles. Paradox of hedonism And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon treadmill. Key proponents.
Hare Peter Singer. Types of utilitarianism. Demandingness objection Mere addition paradox Paradox of hedonism Utility monster. Related topics. Rational choice theory Game theory Social choice Neoclassical economics Population ethics Effective altruism. Beyond the pleasure principle. New York: Liveright. Physiological Reviews. Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward.
Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, sexual behavior, and consummatory behavior. Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward.
Rewarding stimuli, objects, events, situations, and activities consist of several major components. First, rewards have basic sensory components visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory A separate form not included in this scheme, incentive salience, primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior as opposed to learning Third, rewards have a value component that determines the positively motivating effects of rewards and is not contained in, nor explained by, And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon sensory and attentional components FIGURE Kid Canaveral - Who Would Want To Be Loved, right.
This component reflects behavioral preferences and thus is subjective and only partially determined by physical parameters. Only this component constitutes what we understand as a reward.
Rewards can also be intrinsic to behavior 31, They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in laboratory tests. Intrinsic rewards are activities that are pleasurable on their own and are undertaken for their own sake, without being the means for And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon extrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards are genuine rewards in their own right, as they induce learning, approach, and pleasure, like perfectioning, playing, and enjoying the piano.
Although they can serve to condition higher order rewards, they are not conditioned, higher order rewards, as attaining their reward properties does not require pairing with an unconditioned reward. These emotions are also called liking for pleasure and wanting for desire in addiction research and strongly support the learning and approach generating functions of reward. In the prefrontal cortex, recent evidence indicates that the [orbitofrontal cortex] OFC and insula cortex may each contain their own additional hot spots D.
Castro et al. In specific subregions of each area, either opioid-stimulating or orexin-stimulating microinjections And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon to enhance the number of liking reactions elicited by sweetness, similar to the [nucleus accumbens] NAc and [ventral pallidum] VP hot spots. Successful confirmation of hedonic hot spots in the OFC or insula would be important and possibly relevant to the orbitofrontal mid-anterior site mentioned earlier that especially tracks the subjective pleasure of foods in humans Georgiadis et al.
A brainstem mechanism for pleasure may seem more surprising than forebrain hot spots to anyone who views the brainstem as merely reflexive, but the pontine parabrachial nucleus contributes to taste, pain, and many visceral sensations from the body and has also been Love Pt.
2 - Janet Jackson - Janet. to play an important role in motivation Wu et al. Figure 3: Neural circuits underlying motivated 'wanting' and hedonic 'liking'. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Retrieved 17 January So it makes sense that the real pleasure centers in the brain — those directly responsible for generating pleasurable sensations — turn out to lie within some of the structures previously identified as part of the reward circuit. One of these so-called hedonic hotspots lies in a subregion of the nucleus accumbens called the medial shell.
A second is found within the ventral pallidum, a deep-seated structure near the base of the forebrain that receives most of its signals from the nucleus accumbens. On the other hand, intense euphoria is harder to come by than everyday pleasures. The reason may be that strong enhancement of pleasure — like the chemically induced pleasure bump we produced in lab animals — seems to require activation of the entire network at once. Defection of any single component dampens the high.
Whether the pleasure circuit — and in particular, the ventral pallidum — works the same way in humans is unclear. In Kringelbach, Morten L. Pleasures of the Brain. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press, US. Development and Psychopathology. Cognition and Emotion. Revisiting the Quantification of Emotional Qualia". Psychological Science. Draws on neuroscience, philosophy, child-development research, and behavioral Entheogen - Moons Of Jupiter in a study of our desires, attractions, and tastes.
Let's find out". Washington Post. Journal of Religion and Health. Emotions list. Emotional intelligence. Categories : Pleasure Emotions Feeling. Hidden categories: And The Pleasure - Edicius - Aeon template wayback links Articles containing potentially dated statements from October All articles containing potentially dated statements Commons category link from Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote.