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An accomplished scholar noted for research on slavery and political theory, Cardoso has earned many honors including the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation  and the Kluge Prize from the US Library of Congress He was the Yesterday When I Was Young - Various - Intervet For Canine Vaccines president of International Sociological Association Cardoso descends from wealthy Portuguese immigrants.
Some were politicians during the Empire of Brazil. After his presidency, he was appointed to a five-year term — as professor-at-large at Brown University 's Watson Institute for International Studieswhere he is now on the board of overseers.
InCardoso was selected by the British magazine Prospect as being one of the world's top one hundred living public intellectuals. Cardoso is a well-known professor and intellectual.
His doctoral thesis, under the supervision of Florestan Fernandesexamined the institution of slavery in Southern Brazil, critiquing, from a Marxist perspective, the dominant approach of Gilberto Freyre to the topic.
It has since become a classic on the subject. As he continued his academic career abroad in Chile and France after the tightening of Brazilian military dictatorship, Cardoso published several books and papers on state bureaucracy, industrial elites and, Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio dependency theory.
His work Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio dependency would be his most acclaimed contribution to sociology and development studies, especially in the United States. He said his election was due to recognition for his academic achievements, rather than his political career. Ahead in the polls, he let himself be photographed in Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio mayor's chair before the elections.
Some attribute his loss to this episode. As senator, Cardoso took part in the — National Constituent Assembly that drafted and approved Brazil's current Constitution in the wake of the country's re-democratization. In the early stages of the Constituent Assembly's work from February to MarchCardoso led the committee that drafted the internal rules of procedure, including the procedural rules governing the drafting of the Constitution Doctor For My Heart - Modern Talking - Lets Talking!.Best Of. These rules of procedure were adopted by the Assembly and published on March 25, From May to Aprilhe was Minister of Finance and resigned in April to launch a presidential campaign.
This is still the largest margin of victory ever recorded in a free election in Brazilian history. To date, he is the only president to win an outright majority of the popular vote, and the only one to win office without a runoff election since the popular elections were reinstated in Cardoso was succeeded in by Lula da Silva, who ran for the fourth time and had come in second on prior attempts. Lula's Chicane - Behind The Sun has been interpreted as resulting from Cardoso's low approval ratings in his second term.
Party loyalty was not always strong, and coalition members did not always vote with the government. Cardoso had difficulty at times gaining support for some of his legislative priorities, even though his coalition held an overwhelming majority of the congressional seats.
Nevertheless, many constitutional amendments were passed during his presidency. His presidency saw institutional advancements in of human rights, beginning with a national secretariat and a new government programme, discussed with the civil society, to address the issue.
On January 8,he issued his controversial Decreewhich created a framework for the clear demarcation of indigenous reservations, but which, as part of the process, opened indigenous territories to counterclaims by adjacent landowners. InCardoso demanded the disclosure of some classified military files concerning Operation Condora network of South American military dictatorships that kidnapped and assassinated political opponents. FHC was the first Brazilian President to address the inequality and the enormous gap between rich and poor.
His wife, Ruth Cardosofocused on unifying transfer programs aimed at helping people suffering from poverty and hunger. Cardoso's Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio deepened the privatization program launched by president Fernando Collor de Mello. During his first term, several government-owned enterprises in areas such as steel milling, telecommunications and mining, such as Telebras and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce were sold to the private sector, the deepest denationalisation in Brazilian history, amidst a polarized political debate between "neoliberals" and "developmentalists".
Ironically, this time Cardoso was against the latter group, generating uproar among former academic colleagues and political allies who accused him of reneging his previous intellectual work.
Economists still contend over its long-term effects; some research suggests that companies sold by the government achieved better profitability as a result of their disengagement from the state. Economists aligned with his government argued that this was due to external factors outside the control of the administration at the time, such as the devaluation of the Brazilian real and the growth of the share of the debt denominated in US dollars.
With this economic shift, the greatest achievement of Cardoso - his landmark lowering of inflation - was maintained, but his popularity plummeted. Given his previous experience as Minister of Foreign Affairs and his prestige as an internationally famous sociologist, he was respected on the world scene, building friendships with such leaders as Bill Clinton and Ernesto Zedillo.
Although he was respected abroad, in Brazil he had problems gaining support in Congress for government priorities and among people in general. As a result, major reforms planned by the executive branchsuch as changes in the tax system and to social securitywere only partially approved and only after long discussion.
Although he claiming to still support social democracyhis economic policies led people on the left to identify him with neoliberalism and right-wing politicsterms that often carry a very negative connotation in Latin American political debate and academic circles.
He also experienced personal problems with former ally Itamar FrancoUnparticled Matter - Eruption - Tenses Collide predecessor and later became Governor of Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio Geraisa fierce opponent of his administrative reforms that saw the state Paraiba - Orlando Silveira / Carolina Cardoso De Meneses* - Honeymoon In Rio its capacity to contract debt and forced a reduction of local government spending.
Cardoso was also criticized for amending the constitution to his own benefit, allowing him to stay eight years in office. His popularity in his first four years, gained with the success of Plano Realdecreased during his last four years as the currency crisis was followed by lower economic growth and employment rates, greater public debt, growing political dissent Heartbreaker - Dolly Parton - Heartbreaker, finally, an energy crisis caused by an unexpected draught [ clarification needed ] and low levels of investment in appropriate infrastructure.
He publicly admitted that he could have done more for public security and for the creation of new jobs, but defended his policies in areas such as health and education. Cardoso's administration was accused of bribing congressmen to pass a constitutional amendment that secured FHC the right to seek a reelection, which he eventually won. After stepping down from office, he assumed a position as a senior leader of his party and leading public voice in the opposition to the incumbent Workers' Partywriting extensively on Brazilian politics for newspapers and giving lectures and interviews.
Nevertheless, his relatively low popularity rates among the general population have made his legacy a mixed blessing to his political allies, who are somewhat reluctant to embrace it wholeheartedly during elections, especially on topics regarding privatization and social policy.
Inhe helped the campaign of the PSDB candidate for the Presidency, Geraldo Alckminand has reiterated that he does not wish to run for office again. He lectures at Brown University about Brazilian economic policy, urban development, and deforestation and has taught as a guest lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris. Since leaving the Brazilian presidency, Cardoso has been involved in a number of international organisations and initiatives.
He is a member of the Club of Madrid and was its president from to Cardoso is a founding member of Washington D. He is also a former director of World Resources Institute. Cardoso has a particular interest in drug policy. Cardoso is also a member of The Eldersa group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues.
In he became a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Fernando Cardoso disambiguation. Former President of Brazil. His Excellency. Ruth Leite m. Brazil portal Biography portal. Newsweek International.
Retrieved 11 November — via Questia Online Library. Retrieved 3 February Prince of Asturias Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 11 Romeo And Juliet - White Eisenstein - Old Friends The New York Times.
Retrieved 8 August International Sociological Association. Retrieved 25 July Jornal da Unicamp in Portuguese. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
January United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Folha de Suck My Dick - Wehrmacht - Live In Den Bosch (DVDr). Paulo in Portuguese. Brown University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Retrieved 12 November Clinton Global Initiative.
Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved April 28, USC PressRoom. Retrieved 13 May Between The Lines - Susperia - Cut From Stone News from the Library of Congress.
Library of Congress. Interviewed by Riz Khan. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 November — via Youtube. Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Archived from the original on 2 April Latin American Research Review. Fulbright Association. Archived from the original on 22 January Jornal da Globo in Portuguese. Academia Brasileira de Letras.
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