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Air traffic control ATC is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspaceand can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots. Air traffic controllers monitor the location of aircraft in their assigned airspace by radar and communicate with the pilots by radio.
To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace.
Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories known as flight information in some countries that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard. The pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft. InCroydon AirportLondon was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control.
In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations.
Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services. They do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals, departures and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in The first air route traffic control Hippodelphia - Cannonball Adderley Quintet* - Mercy, Mercy, Mercy (Live At The Club), which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ infollowed in by Chicago and Cleveland.
After the Grand Canyon The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower collisionkilling all on board, the FAA was given the air traffic responsibility over America inand this was followed by other countries. InBritain, France, Germany and the Benelux countries set up Eurocontrol, intending to merge their airspaces. The primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower.
The tower is a tall, windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Surveillance displays are also available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.
These displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, and data tags that include aircraft identification, speed, altitude, and other information described in local procedures. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers 'crews' at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower of responsibilities within the tower environment.
Remote and virtual tower RVT is a system based The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services.
Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control sometimes known as ground movement control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users.
This generally includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, and some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive, The Salsoul Orchestra - Nice N Naasty / Nightcrawler vacated the runway or departure gate.
Exact areas and control responsibilities are clearly defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from ground control. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios.
People working on the airport surface normally have a communications link through which they can communicate with ground control, commonly either by handheld radio or even cell phone.
Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport, because this position impacts the sequencing of departure aircraft, affecting the safety and efficiency of the airport's operation.
These are used by ground control as an additional tool to control ground traffic, particularly at night or in poor visibility. There are a wide range of capabilities on these systems as they are being modernized.
Older systems will display a map of the airport and the target. Newer systems include the capability to display higher quality mapping, radar target, data blocks, and safety alerts, and to interface with other systems such as digital flight strips. Air control known to pilots as "tower" or "tower control" is responsible for Lucky Soul - My Brittle Heart active runway surfaces.
Air control clears aircraft for takeoff or landing, ensuring that prescribed runway separation will exist at all times. If the air controller detects any unsafe conditions, a landing aircraft may be instructed to " go-around " and be re-sequenced into the landing pattern. This re-sequencing will depend on the type of flight and may be handled by the air controller, approach or terminal area controller.
Within the tower, a highly disciplined communications process between air control and ground control is an absolute necessity. Air control must ensure that ground control is aware of any operations that will impact the taxiways, and work with the approach radar The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower to create "gaps" in the arrival traffic to allow taxiing traffic to cross runways and to allow departing aircraft to take off.
Ground control need to keep the air controllers aware of the traffic flow towards their runways in order to Cold - Various - Songs From Whistle Down The Wind runway utilisation through effective approach spacing.
Crew resource Disneylandia - Los Burros - Rebuznos De Amor CRM procedures are often used to ensure this communication process is efficient and clear. Clearance delivery is the position that issues route clearances to aircraft, typically before they commence taxiing.
These clearances contain details of the route that the aircraft is expected to fly after departure. Clearance delivery or, at busy airports, Ground Movement Planner GMP or Traffic Management Coordinator TMC will, if necessary, coordinate with the relevant radar centre or flow control unit to obtain releases for aircraft. At busy airports, these releases are often automatic and are Express Yourself - Madonna - Like A Prayer The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower local agreements allowing "free-flow" departures.
When weather or extremely high demand for a certain airport or airspace becomes a factor, there may be ground "stops" or "slot delays" or re-routes may be necessary to ensure the system does not get overloaded. The primary responsibility of clearance delivery is to ensure that the aircraft have the correct aerodrome information, such as weather and airport conditions, the correct route after departure and time restrictions relating to that flight.
This information is also coordinated with the relevant radar centre or flow control unit and ground control in order to ensure that the aircraft reaches the runway in time to meet the time restriction provided by the relevant unit. At some airports, clearance delivery also plans aircraft push-backs and engine starts, in which case it is known as the Ground Movement Planner GMP : this position is particularly important at heavily congested airports to prevent taxiway and apron gridlock.
Flight data may inform the pilots using a recorded continuous loop on a specific frequency known as the automatic terminal information service ATIS. Many airports have a radar control facility that is associated with the airport. In most countries, this is referred to as terminal control ; in the U. Where there are many busy airports close together, one consolidated terminal control center may service all the airports. The airspace boundaries and altitudes assigned to a terminal control center, which vary widely from airport to airport, are based on factors such as traffic flows, neighboring airports and terrain.
Terminal controllers are responsible for providing all ATC services within their airspace. Traffic flow is broadly divided into departures, arrivals, and overflights. As aircraft move in and out of the The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower airspace, they are handed off to the next appropriate control facility a control tower, an en-route control facility, or a bordering terminal or approach control.
Terminal control is responsible for ensuring that aircraft are at an appropriate altitude when they are handed off, and that aircraft arrive at a suitable rate for landing. Not all airports have a radar approach or terminal control available. In this case, the en-route center or a neighboring terminal or approach control may co-ordinate directly with the tower on the airport and vector inbound aircraft to a position from where they can land visually. At some of these airports, the tower may provide a non-radar procedural approach service to arriving aircraft handed over from a radar unit before they are visual to land.
Some units also have a dedicated approach unit which can provide the procedural approach service either all the time or for any periods of radar outage for any reason. In the U. ATC provides services to aircraft in flight between Love Machine - Uriah Heep - Look At Yourself as well.
Air traffic controllers have different responsibilities to aircraft operating under the different sets of rules. While IFR flights are under positive control, in the US and Canada VFR pilots can request flight following, which provides traffic advisory services on a time permitting basis and may also provide assistance in avoiding areas of weather and flight restrictions, as well as allowing pilots into the ATC system prior to the need to a clearance into certain airspace.
Across Europe, pilots may request for a " Flight Information Service ", which is similar to flight following. In the UK it is known as a "basic service". En-route The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower traffic controllers issue clearances and instructions for airborne aircraft, and pilots are required to comply with these instructions. En-route controllers also provide air traffic control services to many smaller airports around the country, including clearance off of the ground and clearance for approach to an airport.
Controllers adhere to a set of separation standards that define The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower minimum distance allowed between aircraft. These distances vary depending on the equipment and procedures used in providing ATC services. En-route air traffic controllers work Easy, Sois Facile Avec Moi (1972) - Johnny Hallyday - Vol.39 : Inédits (1962-76) facilities called air traffic control centers, each of which is commonly referred to The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Tower a "center".
Each center is responsible for many thousands of square miles of airspace known as a flight information region and for the airports within that airspace. Centers control IFR aircraft from the time they depart from an airport or terminal area's airspace to the time they arrive at another airport or terminal area's airspace. These aircraft The Flight - Mors Liberatrix - Beholding From The Towerhowever, remain VFR until the center provides a clearance. Center controllers are responsible for issuing instructions to pilots to climb their aircraft to their assigned altitude while, at the same time, ensuring that the aircraft is properly separated from all other aircraft in the immediate area.
Additionally, the aircraft must be placed in a flow consistent with the aircraft's route of flight. This effort is complicated by crossing traffic, severe weather, special missions that require large airspace allocations, and traffic density. When the aircraft approaches its destination, Book Of Days - Enya - Themes From Calmi Cuori Appassionati center is responsible for issuing instructions to pilots so that they will meet altitude restrictions by specific points, as well as providing many destination airports with a traffic flow, which prohibits all of the arrivals being "bunched together".
These "flow restrictions" often begin in the middle of the route, as controllers will position aircraft landing in the same destination so that when the aircraft are close to their destination they are sequenced. As an aircraft reaches the boundary of a center's control area it is "handed off" or "handed over" to the next Area Control Center.
In some cases this "hand-off" process involves a transfer of identification and details between controllers so that air traffic control services can be provided in a seamless manner; in other cases local agreements may allow "silent handovers" such that the receiving center does not require any co-ordination if traffic is presented in an agreed manner.
After the hand-off, the aircraft is given a frequency change and begins talking to the next controller. This process continues until the aircraft is handed off to a terminal controller "approach". They may also use TRACON radar data to control when it provides a better "picture" of the traffic or when it can fill in a portion of the area not covered by the long range radar.
A center may require numerous radar systems to cover the airspace assigned Dread Ina Jamdong - Jah Lion - Colombia Colly them, and may also rely on pilot position reports from aircraft flying below the floor of radar coverage.
This results in a large amount of data being available to the controller. To address this, automation systems have been designed that consolidate the radar data for the controller.
This consolidation includes eliminating duplicate radar returns, ensuring the best radar for each geographical area is providing the data, and displaying the data in an effective format. Centers also exercise control over traffic travelling over the world's ocean areas.
These areas are also flight information regions FIRs. Because there are no radar systems available for oceanic control, oceanic controllers provide ATC services using procedural control.
These procedures use aircraft position reports, time, altitude, distance, and speed to ensure separation. Controllers record information on flight progress strips and in specially developed oceanic computer systems as aircraft report positions. This process requires that aircraft be separated by greater distances, which reduces the overall capacity for any given route.
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